Characterization of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in suspension
- Kentaro Akiyama†1, 2,
- Yong-Ouk You†1,
- Takayoshi Yamaza1, 3,
- Chider Chen1,
- Liang Tang4,
- Yan Jin4,
- Xiao-Dong Chen5,
- Stan Gronthos6 and
- Songtao Shi1Email author
© Akiyama et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 25 July 2012
Accepted: 25 September 2012
Published: 19 October 2012
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are a heterogeneous population of postnatal precursor cells with the capacity of adhering to culture dishes generating colony-forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-F). Here we identify a new subset of BMMSCs that fail to adhere to plastic culture dishes and remain in culture suspension (S-BMMSCs).
To catch S-BMMSCs, we used BMMSCs-produced extracellular cell matrix (ECM)-coated dishes. Isolated S-BMMSCs were analyzed by in vitro stem cell analysis approaches, including flow cytometry, inductive multiple differentiation, western blot and in vivo implantation to assess the bone regeneration ability of S-BMMSCs. Furthermore, we performed systemic S-BMMSCs transplantation to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like MRL/lpr mice.
S-BMMSCs are capable of adhering to ECM-coated dishes and showing mesenchymal stem cell characteristics with distinction from hematopoietic cells as evidenced by co-expression of CD73 or Oct-4 with CD34, forming a single colony cluster on ECM, and failure to differentiate into hematopoietic cell lineage. Moreover, we found that culture-expanded S-BMMSCs exhibited significantly increased immunomodulatory capacities in vitro and an efficacious treatment for SLE-like MRL/lpr mice by rebalancing regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper 17 cells (Th17) through high NO production.
These data suggest that it is feasible to improve immunotherapy by identifying a new subset BMMSCs.
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are hierarchical postnatal stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewing and differentiating into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and neural cells [1, 2]. BMMSCs express a unique surface molecule profile, including expression of STRO-1, CD29, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146, Octamer-4 (Oct4), and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA4) [3, 4]. It is generally believed that BMMSCs are negative for hematopoietic cell markers such as CD14 and CD34 [5–13]. BMMSCs have been widely used for tissue engineering [14–16]. Recently, a growing body of evidence has indicated that BMMSCs produce a variety of cytokines and display profound immunomodulatory properties [17–19], perhaps by inhibiting the proliferation and function of several major immune cells, such as natural killer cells, dendritic cells, and T and B lymphocytes [17–20]. These unique properties make BMMSCs of great interest for clinical applications in the treatment of different immune disorders [17, 21–24].
BMMSCs are thought to be derived from the bone marrow stromal compartment, initially appearing as adherent, single colony clusters (colony-forming unit-fibroblasts [CFU-F]), and subsequently proliferating on culture dishes . To date, the CFU-F assay has been considered one of the gold standards for determining the incidence of clonogenic BMMSC [26, 27]. Since BMMSC are a heterogeneous population of stem cells, it is critical to identify whether BMMSC contain unique cell subsets with distinctive functions, analogous to the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell system. In this study, we identified a subset of mouse BMMSCs in culture suspension and determined their immunomodulatory characteristics.
Materials and methods
Female C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, and C3MRL-Faslpr/J mice were purchased from Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME, USA). Female immunocompromised mice (Beige nude/nude XIDIII) were purchased from Harlan (Indianapolis, IN, USA). All animal experiments were performed under the institutionally approved protocols for the use of animal research (USC #10874 and 10941).
Anti Oct4, SSEA4, Runx2, OCN, active β catenin and β catenin were purchased from Millipore (Billerica, MA, USA). Anti alkaline phosphatase (ALP) antibody was purchased from Abcam (Cambridge, MA, USA). Anti Sca-1-PE, CD34-PE, CD34-FITC, CD45-PE, CD73-PE, CD4-PerCP, CD8-FITC, CD25-APC, CD3ε and CD28 antibodies were purchased from BD Bioscience (San Jose, CA, USA). Anti Foxp3-PE, IL17-PE, and IFNγ-APC antibodies were purchased from eBioscience (San Diego, CA, USA). Unconjugated anti CD34, CD73, and CD105, NOS2 were purchased from Santa Cruz Biosciences (Santa Cruz, CA, USA). Anti β actin antibody was purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA).
Isolation of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs)
The single suspension of bone marrow derived all nucleated cells (ANCs) from femurs and tibias were seeded at a density of 15 × 106 into 100 mm culture dishes (Corning, NY, USA) at 37°C and 5% CO2. Non-adherent cells were removed after two days and attached cells were maintained for 16 days in alpha minimum essential medium (α-MEM, Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY, USA) supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS, Equitech-bio, Kerrville, TX, USA), 2 mM L-glutamine, 55 μM 2-mercaptoethanol, 100 U/ml penicillin, and 100 μg/ml streptomycin (Invitrogen). Colony-forming attached cells were passed once for further experimental use.
Preparation of Extracellular Matrix (ECM) coated dishes
ECM coated dishes were prepared as described previously . Briefly, 100% confluence of BMMSCs was cultured in medium with 100 nM L-ascorbic acid phosphate (Wako Pure Chemical, Richmond, VA, USA). After two weeks, cultures were washed with PBS and incubated with 0.005% Triton X-100 (Sigma) for 15 minutes at room temperature to remove cells. The ECM was treated with DNase I (100 units/ml; Sigma) for 1 hour at 37°C. The ECM was washed with PBS three times and stored in 2 ml of PBS containing 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin and 0.25 μg/ml fungizone (Invitrogen) at 4°C.
Isolation of BMMSCs in culture suspension (S-BMMSCs)
Bone marrow-derived ANCs (15 × 106) were seeded into 100 mm culture dishes and cultured for two days. The culture supernatant with floating cells was collected and centrifuged to obtain putative non-attached BMMSCs. The cells were re-seeded at indicated numbers on ECM-coated dishes. After 2 days, the floating cells in the cultures were removed with PBS and the attached cells on ECM were maintained for an additional 14 days. Colony-forming attached cells were passed once and sub-cultured on regular plastic culture dishes for further experiments. For some stem cell characterization analyses, we collected SSEA4 positive S-BMMSCs using the MACS magnetic separation system (Milteny Biotech, Auburn, CA, USA) and expanded in the cultures.
Colony forming unit-fibroblastic (CFU-F) assay
One million cells of ANCs from bone marrow were seeded on a T-25 cell culture flask (Nunc, Rochester, NY, USA). After 16 days, the cultures were washed with PBS and stained with 1% toluidine blue solution in 2% paraformaldehyde (PFA). A cell cluster that had more than 50 cells was counted as a colony under microscopy. The colony number was counted in five independent samples per each experimental group.
Cell proliferation assay
The proliferation of BMMSCs and S-BMMSCs was performed using the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. Each cell population (1 × 104 cells/well) was seeded on two-well chamber slides (Nunc) and cultured for two to three days. The cultures were incubated with BrdU solution (1:100) (Invitrogen) for 20 hours, and stained with a BrdU staining kit (Invitrogen). BrdU-positive and total cell numbers were counted in ten images per subject. The BrdU assay was repeated in five independent samples for each experimental group.
Population doubling assay
A total of 0.5 × 106 cells of BMMSCs and S-BMMSCs was seeded on 60 mm culture dishes at the first passage. Upon reaching confluence, the cells were passaged at the same cell density. The population doubling was calculated at every passage according to the equation: log2 (number of harvested cells/number of seeded cells). The finite population doublings were determined by cumulative addition of total numbers generated from each passage until the cells ceased dividing.
Flow cytometric analysis of mesenchymal stem cell surface molecules
BMMSCs or S-BMMSCs (0.2 × 106 cells) were incubated with 1 µg of R-Phycoerythrin (PE). (PE)-conjugated antibodies or isotype-matched control immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) (Southern Biotech, Birmingham, AL, USA) at 4°C for 45 minutes. Samples were analyzed by a fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)Calibur flow cytometer (BD Bioscience). For dual color analysis, the cells were treated with PE-conjugated and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated antibodies or isotype-matched control IgGs (1 µg each). The cells were analyzed on FACSCalibur (BD Bioscience).
The cells subcultured on eight-well chamber slides (Nunc) (2 × 103/well) were fixed with 4% PFA. The samples were incubated with the specific or isotype-matched mouse antibodies (1:200) overnight at 4°C, and treated with Rhodamine-conjugated secondary antibodies (1:400, Jackson ImmunoResearch, West Grove, PA, USA; Southern Biotechnology, Birmingham, AL, USA). Finally, chamber slides were mounted using Vectashield mounting medium containing 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA, USA).
In vivo bone formation assay
A total of 4.0 × 106 cells was mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) ceramic powders (40 mg, Zimmer Inc., Warsaw, IN, USA) and subcutaneously transplanted into eight-week-old immunocompromised mice. After eight weeks, the transplants were harvested, fixed in 4% PFA and then decalcified with 5% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA; pH 7.4), followed by paraffin embedding. The paraffin sections were stained with H & E and analyzed by an NIH Image-J. The newly-formed mineralized tissue area from five fields was calculated and shown as a percentage to total tissue area.
In vitro osteogenic differentiation assay
BMMSCs and S-BMMSCs were cultured under osteogenic culture conditions containing 2 mM β-glycerophosphate (Sigma), 100 μM L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate and 10 nM dexamethasone (Sigma). After induction, the cultures were stained with alizarin red or alkaline phosphatase.
In vitro adipogenic differentiation assay
For adipogenic induction, 500 nM isobutylmethylxanthine, 60 μM indomethacin, 500 nM hydrocortisone, 10 μg/ml insulin (Sigma), 100 nM L-ascorbic acid phosphate were added to the culture medium. After 10 days, the cultured cells were stained with Oil Red-O and positive cells were quantified by using an NIH Image-J. Total RNA was also isolated from cultures after 10 days induction for further experiments.
In vitro chondrogenic differentiation assay
For chondrogenic induction, 1 × 106 cell pellets were cultured under chondrogenic medium containing 15% FBS, 1% ITS (BD), 100 nM dexamethasone, 2 mM pyruvate (SIGMA), and 10 ng/ml transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) in (D)MEM (Invitrogen) for threeweeks. Cell pellets were harvested at three weeks post induction, fixed overnight with 4% PFA and then, sections were prepared for staining.
Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR) analysis
Extraction of total RNA and RT-PCR were performed according to standard procedures. Primer information is described in Additional materials and methods [see Additional file 1].
Western blotting analysis
A total of 20 µg of protein was used and SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed according to standard procedures. Detailed procedures are described in Additional materials and methods [see Additional file 1]. β-actin on the same membrane served as the loading control.
Hematopoietic differentiation of BMMSCs and S-BMMSCs
BMMSCs and S-BMMSCs were cultured onto 35 mm low attach culture dishes (2 × 104/dish, STEMCELL Technologies, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1B3, Canada) under hematopoietic differentiation medium (STEMCELL Technologies) with or without erythropoietin (EPO; 3 U/mL) for seven days. Whole bone marrow cells and linage negative bone marrow cells (Linage-cells) were used as positive controls. The results are representative of five independent experiments.
S-BMMSCs and BMMSCs were treated with 1 mM L-NG-monomethyl-arginine (L-NMMA) (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) or 0.2 mM 1400 W (Cayman Chemical) to inhibit total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), respectively.
Measurement of nitric oxide production
BMMSCs (0.2 × 106/well) were cultured on 24-well plates with or without cytokines (IFNγ, 25 ng/ml; IL-1β, 5 ng/ml, R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA) and chemicals (L-NMMA, 1 mM; 1400 W, 0.2 mM) at the indicated concentration and days. The supernatant from each culture was collected and nitric oxide concentration measured using a Total Nitric Oxide and Nitrate/Nitrite Parameter Assay kit (R&D Systems) according to the manufacturer's instruction.
Cell apoptosis and cell survival assay
The transwell system (Corning) was used for co-culture experiments. A total of 0.2 × 106 of S-BMMSCs or BMMSCs was seeded on each lower chamber. Activated spleen cells (1 × 106/chamber), which were pre-stimulated with plate-bound anti CD3ε antibody (3 µg/ml) and soluble anti CD28 antibody (2 µg/ml) for two days, were loaded in the upper chambers. Both chambers were filled with a complete medium containing (D)MEM (Lonza, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland) with 10% heat-inactivated FBS, 50 µM 2-mercaptoethanol, 10 mM HEPES, 1 mM sodium pyruvate (Sigma), 1% non-essential amino acid (Cambrex, East Rutherford, NJ, USA), 2 mM L-glutamine, 100 U/ml penicillin and 100 mg/ml streptomycin. To measure the spleen cells viability, cell counting kit-8 (Dojindo Molecular Technologies, Rockville, MD, USA) was used. For apoptosis of spleen cells analyses, Annexin V-PE apoptosis detection kits I (BD Bioscience) were used and analyzed on FACSCalibur (BD Bioscience).
In vitro CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Tregs and Th17 induction
CD4+CD25- T-lymphocytes (1 × 106/well), collected using a CD4+CD25+ Treg isolation kit (Miltenyi Biotec), were pre-stimulated with plate-bound anti CD3ε antibody (3 µg/ml) and soluble anti CD28 antibody (2 µg/ml) for two days. These activated T-lymphocytes were loaded on 0.2 × 106 BMMSCs or S-BMMSCs cultures with recombinant human TFGβ1 (2 ng/ml) (R&D Systems) and recombinant mouse IL2 (2 ng/ml) (R&D Systems). For Th17 induction, recombinant human TFGβ1 (2 ng/ml) and recombinant mouse IL6 (50 ng/ml) (Biolegend, San Diego, CA, USA) were added. After three days, cells in suspension were collected and stained with anti CD4-PerCP, anti CD8a-FITC, anti CD25-APC antibodies (each 1 µg) for 45 minutes on ice under dark conditions. The cells were then stained with anti Foxp3-PE antibody (1 µg) using a Foxp3 staining buffer kit (eBioscience) for cell fixation and permeabilization. For Th17, cells in suspension were stained with anti CD4-FITC (1µg, Biolegend) for 45 minutes on ice under dark conditions followed by intercellular staining with anti-IL 17 antibody (1µg, Biolegend) using a Foxp3 staining buffer kit. The cells were analyzed on FACSCalibur.
Allogenic mouse S-BMMSC transplantation into MRL/lpr mice
Under general anesthesia, C3H/HeJ-derived BMMSCs, S-BMMSCs, L-NMMA pre-treated BMMSCs (1 mM for five days), or CD34+/CD73+ double sorted cells (0.1 × 106 cells/10 g body weight) were infused into MRL/lpr mice via the tail vein at 10 weeks of age (n = 6 each group). In the control group, MRL/lpr mice received PBS (n = 5). All mice were sacrificed at two weeks post transplantation for further analysis. The protein concentration in urine was measured using a Bio-Rad Protein Assay (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA).
Measurement of autoantibodies, albumin, soluble runt-related NF-κB ligand (sRANKL) and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX)
Peripheral blood serum samples were collected from mice. Autoantibodies, sRANKL and CTX were analyzed by ELISA using commercially available kits (anti-dsDNA antibodies and ANA; alpha diagnostics, albumin and sRANKL; R&D Systems, CTX; Nordic Bioscience Diagnostics, Herlev, Rigion Hovedstaden, Denmark) according to their manufactures' instructions. The results were averaged in each group. The intra-group differences were calculated between the mean values.
Flow cytometric analysis of Tregs and Th17 cells
To detect Tregs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) (1 × 106) were treated with PerCP-conjugated anti-CD4, FITC-conjugated anti-CD8a, APC-conjugated anti-CD25 antibodies, and stained with R-PE-conjugated anti-Foxp3 antibody using a Foxp3 staining buffer kit (eBioscience). To measure Th17 cells, PBMNCs (1 × 106) were incubated with PerCP-conjugated anti-CD4, FITC-conjugated anti-CD8a, followed by treatment with R-PE-conjugated anti-IL-17 and APC-conjugated anti-IFNγ antibodies using a Foxp3 staining buffer kit. The cells were then analyzed on FACSCalibur .
Student's t-test was used to analyze statistical difference. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant.
A subset of BMMSCs lacks the ability to adhere to plastic culture dishes (S-BMMSCs) but attaches to extracellular cell matrix (ECM)-coated culture dishes
S-BMMSCs express CD34, but are distinct from hematopoietic stem cells
It is generally believed that CD34 expression is associated with HSCs and endothelial populations. HSCs can differentiate into all the blood cell lineages and rescue lethally irradiated subjects. Thus, we cultured S-BMMSCs and regular BMMSCs in hematopoietic differentiation medium and determined that these mesenchymal cells failed to differentiate into a hematopoietic cell lineage compare to bone marrow cells that formed myeloid and erythroid colony forming clusters (Figure 3F). In addition, CD45-CD34-BMMSCs showed an ability similar to that of S-BMMSCs in colony forming and expressing surface marker as MSC [see Additional file 1, Figure S2]. Furthermore, we infused S-BMMSCs systemically to rescue lethally irradiated mice and found that S-BMMSCs, but not regular BMMSCs, could extend the lifespan of lethally irradiated mice [see Additional file 1, Figure S3]. However, S-BMMSCs failed to rescue lethally irradiated mice, as shown in the whole bone marrow cell group [see Additional file 1, Figure S3]. These data provid further evidence that CD34 expression in S-BMMSCs is not due to HSC contamination.
S-BMMSCs transplantation ameliorates multiple organ dysfunctions in MRL/lpr mice
Furthermore, we showed that S-BMMSCs were superior to BMMSCs in terms of reducing increased numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive osteoclasts in the distal femur epiphysis of MRL/lpr mice [see Additional file 1, Figure S4A], elevated serum levels of sRANKL, a critical factor for osteoclastogenesis [see Additional file 1, Figure S4B] and bone resorption marker CTX [see Additional file 1, Figure S4C]. These data suggest that S-BMMSCs exhibit a superior therapeutic effect for SLE disorders compared to regular BMMSCs.
S-BMMSCs possess superior immunomodulatory functions via high nitric oxide (NO) production
Since up-regulation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs is required for immunotolerance , we tested Tregs up-regulation property of S-BMMSCs and BMMSCs in an in vitro co-culture system. When naïve-T-cells were co-cultured with S-BMMSCs or regular BMMSCs in the presence of IL-2 and TGF-β1, S-BMMSCs showed a significant up-regulation of Treg levels compared to regular BMMSCs (Figure 5F). Both L-NMMA and 1400 W were able to inhibit BMMSC- and S-BMMSC-induced up-regulation of Tregs, as shown by flow cytometric analysis (Figures 5G and 5H). Interestingly, the regulation effect on Tregs was more significant in the S-BMMSC group compared to the BMMSC group (Figure 5G and 5H). Moreover, both BMMSCs and S-BMMSCs could inhibit differentiation of Th17 in vitro, with a more prominent effect observed with S-BMMSC (Figure 5I). These inhibitions of Th17 differentiation were abolished by L-NMMA (Figure 5J) and 1400 W (Figure 5K). These data further verified the functional role of NO in S-BMMSC-induced immunomodulatory effect.
In order to identify whether there are functional endogenous S-BMMSCs, we used fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate CD34 and CD73 double-positive cells from bone marrow ANCs which resulted in the recovery of 3.77% double-positive cells [see Additional file 1, Figure S7A]. These CD34 and CD73 double-positive cells exhibited mesenchymal stem cell characteristics, including the capacity to form single colony clusters of fibroblast-like cells [see Additional file 1, Figure S7B], which could differentiate into osteogenic cells in vitro [see Additional file 1, Figure S7C]. These data indicated the feasibility of this approach to isolate S-BMMSC-like cells directly from bone marrow. We found that CD34+/CD73+ BMMSCs were analogous to S-BMMSCs in terms of having higher levels of NO production when compared to regular BMMSCs [see Additional file 1, Figure S7D] and reducing levels of urine protein, serum anti-dsDNA IgG and IgM antibodies in MRL/lpr mice (data not shown). These data indicate that endogenous S-BMMSCs could be isolated from bone marrow using CD34 and CD73 antibodies double sorting.
Additionally, we used the same BMMSC-ECM isolation approach to reveal the existence of human S-BMMSCs (hS-BMMSC) that possess stem cell properties including multipotent differentiation and self-renewal but lack expression of CD34 (data not shown). hS-BMMSCs showed elevated NO and kynurenine production which indicate high indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity when compared to regular BMMSCs [see Additional file 1, Figures S8A-C]. Thus, when activated T cells were co-cultured with hS-BMMSCs, AnnexinV-7 aminoactinomycinD (7AAD) double positive apoptotic SP cells were significantly elevated compared to BMMSCs [see Additional file 1, Figure S8D].
Adherent BMMSCs are able to proliferate and undergo osteogenic differentiation, providing the first evidence of CFU-F as precursors for osteoblastic lineage . For over a few decades, the adherent CFU-F assay has been used as an effective approach to identify and select BMMSCs. In the current study, we showed that the adherent CFU-F assay collects the majority of clonogenic BMMSCs, but a subpopulation of BMMSCs is sustained in the culture suspension. This newly identified subpopulation of BMMSCs may be lost in the standard CFU-F assay for BMMSC isolation.
Due to the heterogeneity of the BMMSCs, there is no single, unique marker allowing for BMMSC isolation, rather an array of cell molecules are utilized to profile BMMSCs. It is widely accepted that BMMSCs express SH2 (CD105), SH3/SH4 (CD73), integrin β1 (CD29), CD44, Thy-1 (CD90), CD71, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD106), activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (CD166), STRO-1, GD2, and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (CD146) [5, 7–13, 31, 32]. Nevertheless, it is believed that BMMSCs lack expression of hematopoietic surface molecules including CD34, integrin αM (CD11b) and CD14. However, recent studies have implied that mouse BMMSCs might express the hematopoietic surface molecules, CD45  and CD34 . To ensure purity of S-BMMSCs, we used immune FACS to collect SSEA4+ S-BMMSCs for proliferation and differentiation assays in this study. Interestingly, previous experimental evidence appeared to support a notion that HSCs are capable of differentiating into mesenchymal cells  and osteoblastic lineage in vivo . Thus, it is critical to clarify whether BMMSCs express hematopoietic associated surface molecules.
In this study, we have identified a novel subset of S-BMMSCs that failed to form adherent CFU-F in regular culture dishes, but were capable of adhering on mesenchymal stem cell-produced ECM and differentiating into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes from both C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J mice. S-BMMSCs co-expressed the HSC marker CD34 with the MSC markers CD73 and Oct4, excluding the potential of HSC contamination. Furthermore, S-BMMSCs were found to be distinct from HSC because they lacked the ability to differentiate into hematopoietic cell lineages in vitro and failed to rescue lethally-irradiated mice. The mechanism that may contribute to the up-regulated immunomodulatory function was associated with high NO production in S-BMMSCs and a NO-driven high Tregs level . NO is a gaseous biological mediator with important roles in affecting T cell function .
This is the reason that S-BMMSCs showed a superior therapeutic effect in treating SLE mice.
One successful approach is to isolate cells that express specific molecules on their cell surfaces using monoclonal antibodies and cell sorting technologies. Enriched populations of BMMSCs have been isolated from human bone marrow aspirates using a STRO-1 monoclonal antibody in conjunction with antibodies against VCAM-1/CD106 , CD146 , low affinity nerve growth factor receptor/CD271, PDGR-R, EGF-R and IGF-1-R , fibroblast cell marker/D7-Fib  and integrin alpha 1/CD49a . A more recent study has also identified molecules co-expressed by a CD271+ mesenchymal stem cell population including platelet derived growth factor receptor-β (CD140b), human epidermal growth factor 2/ErbB2 (CD340) and frizzled-9 (CD349) . Further cell separation based upon multi-parameter FACS identified a population of proposed mouse mesenchymal precursors with the composite phenotype Lin-CD45-CD31-Sca-1+ . Another recent study also identified and characterized an alternate population of primitive mesenchymal cells derived from adult mouse bone marrow, based upon their expression of the SSEA-1 . All approaches used for BMMSC purification and isolation will undergo ex vivo expansion to enrich cell numbers for tissue regeneration or systemic therapies by plastic adherent assay. In addition to identifying a novel sub-population of BMMSCs that possess enhanced immunomodulatory properties when compared to regular BMMSCs, we showed that CD34+/CD73+ BMMSCs could be isolated directly from whole bone marrow and that CD34+/CD73+ BMMSCs are endogenous S-BMMSCs with higher NO production, and are superior in treating SLE-like mice when compared to regular BMMSCs.
Recently, non-adherent bone marrow cells (NA-BMCs) were identified [44, 45]. The NA-BMSCs could be expanded in suspension and gave rise to multiple mesenchymal phenotypes, including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in vitro, suggesting the presence of non-adherent BMMSCs in primary CFU-F cultures . Although it has been reported that the NA-BMCs can rescue lethally-irradiated mouse recipients, our data indicated that S-BMMSCs only showed improved survival lifespan without a complete rescue of lethally-irradiated mice, compared to whole bone marrow transplantation. While the mechanism of S-BMMSC-mediated lifespan extension in lethally-irradiated mice is unknown, it is possible that S-BMMSCs have a more active interplay with hematopoietic cells than regular BMMSCs. It has been reported that granulocyte colony stimulating factor might promote BMMSCs into the circulation in humans , suggesting that non-attached BMMSCs may exist in vivo for specific functional needs. Added evidence indicated that osteocalcin-positive cells in circulation were able to differentiate into osteoblastic cells when cultured in the presence of TGFβ . However, it is unknown whether S-BMMSCs are associated with circulating mesenchymal stem cells initially identified in mice, and this is very rare in humans.
A new subset of BMMSCs (S-BMMSCs) which failed to adhere to culture dishes possesses similar stem cell properties as those seen in BMMSCs, including CFU-F, stem cell markers, osto-, adipo-, and chondro-genic differentiation. However, S-BMMSC showed distinct features including expression of CD34 and a superior immunomodulation property through high NO production. These findings suggest that it is feasible to improve immunotherapy by identifying new subset BMMSCs.
all nucleated cells
bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
colony forming unit fibroblastic
C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen
(Dulbecco's) modified Eagle's medium
extracellular cell matrix
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
fluorescence-activated cell sorting
fetal bovine serums
- H & E:
hematoxylin and eosin
hematopoietic stem cell
nuclear factor-kappa B
nitric oxide synthase
peripheral blood mononuclear cells
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2
reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction
BMMSCs in suspension
systemic lupus erythematosus
soluble runt-related NF-κB ligand
stage-specific embryonic antigen
transforming growth factor beta
T helper 17 cells
tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase
regulatory T cells.
We thank Dr. Tao Cai from NIH for discussions and critical reading of the manuscript. This work was supported by grants from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services (R01DE017449 and R01 DE019932 to S.S.).
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