Effects of WBM, BMC and MSC on fibroblast migration in a ‘wound’ scratch assay. (A) Schematic diagram of the transwell migration assay: Fibroblasts cells were plated in the lower chamber. Cell monolayers were mechanically disrupted with a 1 mL pipette tip. In the upper chamber, the cells (WBM and MSC) were allowed to migrate for 24, 48 and 72 hours toward the lower chamber. Photographs were taken at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours to examine the defect in closing. (B) Photographs of wounded mouse fibroblast monolayers at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after wounding. (C) Scratch assays quantification in a wound-healing model. Effects of bone marrow derived cells on mouse fibroblast migration in a wound scratch assay. In order to determine the percentage scratch closure the cell free space was measured using cellSens software installed in an Olympus microscope and pixels were converted to micrometers. The migration value was calculated as wound closure distance from time zero to 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively (∆d = dt0-d72h). The in vitro wound-healing assay showed that WBM strongly improved the fibroblast wound closure compared with BMC, MSC and the control group. In this experiment the data represent mean +/− SEM of five measurements. BMC, whole bone marrow cultured cells; MSC, mesenchymal stem cells; SEM, standard error of the mean; WBM, whole bone marrow.