Dectin-2 expression on MSCs was significantly upregulated over time in the presence of pullulan. Histogram plots for MSCs incubated in the presence of increasing pullulan concentrations at 2, 24 and 48 hours (A). Graphs show curve shifts with increasing Dectin-2 staining of cells, with increasing concentrations of pullulan and length of exposure (A). Bar chart representation of Dectin-2 expression on MSCs over time as a result of pullulan exposure (hours) (B). At all time points of exposure, there was an increase in Dectin-2 expression with increasing concentration of pullulan. After 24 and 48 hours, the increase in Dectin-2 expression was significantly increased in 5% pullulan cultures compared to 0% controls. Data are presented as the mean ± SD of n = 3 biological replicates generated using triplicate measurements, ** = P ≤0.01; *** = P ≤0.001 (B). The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of Dectin-2 expression was calculated for MSCs following exposure to increasing concentrations of pullulan over 48 hours. The results of three independent experiments are shown (n = 3 donors) ± SEM (C). MSCs, mesenchymal stem cells; SD, standard deviation; SEM, standard error of the mean.