Differential lipid accumulation capacity and cytokine secretion of induced adipose stem cells from obese, postbariatric surgery ex-obese and control patients. The adipose stem cells (ASCs) were cultured under inductive medium to accumulate lipids for up to 3 weeks, after which lipid accumulation was accompanied by Oil Red O staining (A, B, C) or by staining with perilipin and adipose differentiation-related protein (E, F, G). The total Oil Red O dye captured by the lipid droplets was measured in a spectrophotometer. (D) Representative data from five independent experiments, expressed as the mean ± standard error of the mean, which represents the quantitative results of the Oil Red O staining. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests comparing the absorbances were performed (P <0.0001). The supernatant of the induced cells was evaluated for cytokine secretion. (H) Interleukin (IL)-6, (I) macrophage chemoattractive protein-1 (MCP-1), (J) IL-8 and (K) adiponectin. ANOVA tests comparing the secretions were performed. P values from the statistical tests: **P <0.001, ***P <0.0001. (A, B, C) Optical microscopy, bar size: 50 μm. (D, E, F) Fluorescence laser confocal microscopy, bar size = 20 μm. Ctr, control; ExOB, postbariatric surgery ex-obese; OB, obese.