UCB mononuclear cells suppressed PAB-induced increase in pathogenic gene expression and upregulated cardiac transcription factors. (A through E) Right ventricular free wall was used for quantitative real-time PCR analysis of cardiac pathogenic markers, such as BNP, ANP, Acta1, Myh7 and Myh6. Transcript levels of these markers were measured in heart tissue of the PAB-only group and compared with that of the UCB-MNC transplanted group. (F) Cardiac transcription factors (GATA4, Kdr, Mef2c and Nkx2.5) were significantly upregulated in the UCB-MNC transplanted heart tissue in comparison with PAB-only heart tissue (n = 4, ** P-value <0.05 versus PAB). Data are expressed as fold change. All data reported are representative of four independent experiments performed in triplicate and are normalized to those of GAPDH. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. PAB, pulmonary artery banding; SEM, standard error of the mean; UCB-MNCs, umbilical cord blood-mononuclear cells.