Balanced biphasic stimulation does not elicit galvanotaxis in neural precursor cells induced to differentiate. (A, B, C) Differentiated cells exhibit similar magnitude of velocity (|velocity|) (A), directedness (B) and tortuosity (C) of migration when exposed to biphasic monopolar (BPMP) stimulation (n = 3), biphasic bipolar (BPBP) stimulation (n = 3) or no stimulation (n = 3). (D, E, F) Individual cell migration tracks localized to a common origin show that differentiated cells undergo little migration over 6 hours of time-lapse imaging in the presence of BPMP stimulation (D), BPBP stimulation (E) or in the absence of stimulation (F). (G, H, I, J, K, L) Differentiated cells express β-III tubulin (G, H; arrowheads) or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)
(I, J) prior to (G, I) and following (H, J) 6 hours of time-lapse imaging, when exposed to biphasic electrical stimulation, or not stimulated (K, L). (G′, H′, J′, K′, L′) Higher magnification images of the regions within the dashed boxes in (G to L)
. Scale bars = 200 μm. Data presented as mean ± standard error of the mean. *P <0.05.