ASCs did not suppress the negative effects of IL-1β on TFs. (A) ASCs failed to suppress the IL-1β-induced effects on TF gene expression. TFs were cultured alone (TT), co-cultured with naïve ASCs (TA), or co-cultured with activated ASCs (TAa; activated with IFNγ), with or without IL-1β for one day (inclusion of IL-1β indicated with ‘+’). Data were normalized to the housekeeping gene GAPDH (* P <0.05, † P <0.10, based on a multi-factor ANOVA with Fisher’s post-hoc tests there was a significant effect of IL-1β but no effect of ASCs, N = 4). (B) ASCs failed to reduce IL-1β protein levels in the medium after one, two, and three days of co-culture (based on a multi-factor ANOVA and Fisher’s post hoc tests there was a significant effect of time but no effect of ASCs, N = 4). (TT: TFs cultured alone, TT+: TFs treated with IL-1β, TA: TFs co-cultured with naïve ASCs, TA+: TFs co-cultured with naïve ASCs and treated with IL-1β, TAa: TFs co-cultured with activated ASCs, TAa+: TFs co-cultured with activated ASCs and treated with IL-1β). ANOVA, analysis of variance; ASCs, adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells; TFs, tendon fibroblasts.