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Table 2 Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in animal models of Huntington’s disease

From: Neural and mesenchymal stem cells in animal models of Huntington’s disease: past experiences and future challenges

Cells Cell markers Passage Cell labeling Cell number/inoculation site, inoculation time Growth factor expression Animal model/ age Time of analysis Animal behavior/ striatal volume Cell distribution/ survival Cell differentiation Cell migratory activity Conclusions and references
MSCs from mUCB Positive: Low: 3 to 8 Hoechst 33,358 400,000 cells per hemisphere mRNA: BDNF R6/2, 5 weeks mice   Significant differences were observed between R6/2 and high-passage mUCB MSCs at 10 weeks of age Not specified No differentiation Not specified Transplantation of low-passage mUCB MSCs did not confer significant motor benefits. Limb-clasping was not observed [122]
CD45 High: 40 to 50
SCA1
SSEA4
MHC class I
MHC Class II
rBM-MSCs Not specified Not specified SPION 5 × 105 or 1 × 106; striatum Not specified QA rat 7 days after lesion Not specified Not specified Not specified Blood vessels and lateral ventricles in both hemispheres Reduced brain damage and enhanced striatal expression of FGF-2 [125]
rBM-MSCs Not specified Not specified Hoechst 33,258 200,000 or 400,000 cells per hemisphere; 28 days after 3-NP mRNA: BDNF, collagen type I and fibronectin 3-NP rat From 72 h to 14 days post-graft Behavior improvements No distribution No differentiation No migration Increased mRNA:BDNF, collagen type I and fibronectin. Neuroprotective effect. Behavior improvement [126]
Human AT-MSCs; hypoxia Positive: nestin, NG2, KDR, FLT1, and CD34 Not specified Ad5-GFP 5 × 105cells; bilateral striatum mRNA: NGF, BDNF, bFGF, HGF, VEGF, IGF-1, GM-CSF, PDGF-α, EGF, CNTF R6/2; 8.5 weeks mice 4 weeks after injection Slowed behavioral deterioration Not specified Tuj-1 GABAergic neurons. PGC-1α master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis increased in ASC treated mice Limited Reduced striatal degeneration and formation of ubiquitin-positive aggregates. Behavior improvement [123]
Negative: neurofilament O4
Human AT-ASCs; hypoxia Same as above Not specified Vybrant DiO 106 cells; striatum after injection of QA Same as above QA mice; 8.5 weeks Same as above Significant improvement in apomorphine-induced rotation tests Not specified BDNF, calbindin, GABA, GAD—neuronal enzyme Near transplantation locus forming a lump Neuroprotective effect. Behavior improvement [123]
Adult rBM-MSCs Nestin+, GFAP+, SCF/c-kit+ Passage ≥10 PKH26, Hoechst and TOTO-3 100,000 cells; striatum   QA rat 3 weeks or 8 weeks post-graft Not specified Significant Undifferentiated Limited; striatum SCF increased expression [61]
Human BM-MSCs Positive: CD29, CD44, CD49c, CD49f, CD59, CD90, CD105, CD166 Early: 3 to 5 GFP-hMSCs 100,000 hMSCs; striatum Not specified N171-82Q mice 1, 3, 5, 7, 15, and 30 days post-graft Decreased atrophy of the striatal volume Survival: 15.1 % at 24 h; 4.5 % at 5 days; 0 % at 15 days hMSCs are undifferentiated. Endogenous cell: NeuN, βIII tubulin hMSCs recruit pre-existing neuronal cells to the striatum Increased: FGF-2, CNTF, VEGF, NGF. Endogenous cell proliferation. Reduced striatal degeneration [96]
Negative: CD34, CD36, CD117, CD45
Human BM-MSCs; immortalized cell line Not specified Not applied Bisbenzimide + TOTO3 200,000 cells per hemisphere Not specified WT mice 8 weeks post-graft Not applied Survival rate-significant GFAP, DARPP-32 Human BM-MSC transplantation induces migration of endogenous neuroblast cells Not specified [124]
Human BM-MSCs Not specified Not applied   200,000 cells per hemisphere Not specified QA mice 16 days post-graft Improves: rotarod performance, striatum volume Survival rate—significant. Reduced cell apoptosis GFAP, NeuN, DARPP-32, F4/80 (macrophage and microglial marker) Same as above Neuroprotective effect. Behavior improvement. Reduced striatal degeneration [124]
Human BM-MSCs Not specified Not applied   200,000 cells per hemisphere Not specified R6/2-J2 mice 16 days post-graft Improves: rotarod performance, striatum volume Survival rate—significant. Reduced cell apoptosis GFAP, NeuN, DARPP-32, F4/80 Same as above Same as above [124]
  1. 3-NP 3-nitropropionic acid, ASC adult stem cell, AT-ASC adipose tissue-derived adult stem cell, AT-MSC adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell, BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor, bFGF basic fibroblast growth factor, BM-MSC bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell, CNTF ciliary neurotrophic factor, DARPP-32 dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32 kDa, EGF epithelial growth factor, FGF-2 fibroblast growth factor 2, GABA gamma aminobutyric acid, GAD glutamate decarboxylase, GFAP glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFP green fluorescent protein, GM-CSF granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, HGF hepatocyte growth factor, hMSC human mesenchymal stem cell, IGF-1 insulin-like growth factor 1, KDR kinase insert domain receptor, MHC major histocompatibility complex, MSC mesenchymal stem cell, mUCB mouse umbilical cord blood, NGF nerve growth factor, PDGF platelet-derived growth factor (alpha polypeptide), PGC-1α peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 α, QA quinolinic acid, rBM-MSC rat bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cell, SCF stem cell factor, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor, WT wild type