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Table 3 Long-term limitations of autologous auricular reconstruction

From: Combining regenerative medicine strategies to provide durable reconstructive options: auricular cartilage tissue engineering

Long-term limitations Reasons
Stiffness 1. Different biomechanical properties of fibrocartilage donor [23]
2. Heterotopic calcification [23, 65]
Extrusion 1. Skin flap necrosis [37]
2. Wire sutures to assemble cartilage framework [36, 37]
3. Wound infection or pressure dressings [28, 64]
Projection loss 1. Effacement of postauricular sulcus due to contraction of skin grafts [37, 67]
Distortion 1. Constriction of skin and soft tissue overlying the construct due to scarring or ischaemia [37]
2. Cartilage degradation and resorption leading to loss of definition [64, 66, 67]