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Table 4 Potential future benefits and challenges of combining regenerative medicine with additive manufacturing

From: Combining regenerative medicine strategies to provide durable reconstructive options: auricular cartilage tissue engineering

  Feature Benefits Challenges
Bioprinting Control over macrostructure and microstructure of tissue produced Replicate anatomical form
Reduce surgical technique learning curve
Biomechanical properties of bioinks
Effect of printing on cells
Printing resolution
  Patient-specific macrostructure from image acquisition (CT/MRI) Reduce variability in surgical outcomes Macrostructure may alter during bioreactor maturation
  Manufacture ex vivo Avoid donor site morbidity
Reduce operating time
Potential for contamination
Regulatory constraints
Regenerative medicine Tissue-specific stem cells to improve quality and functionality of engineered tissue True ‘like for like’ replacement
Restoring native anisotropy allows improved matching of mechanical properties
Genetic stability and differentiation capacity of cells after prolonged expansion in culture
  Tissue maturation utilizing growth factors Reduce degradation and constriction Optimal growth factor combinations and temporal effects
  1. CT computed tomography, MRI magnetic resonance imaging