Skip to main content

Table 1 Differences between the cell cycle machinery of β cells and ES cells

From: The cell cycle as a brake for β-cell regeneration from embryonic stem cells

Cell cycle machinery

Beta cells

ES cells



Expressed but no functional importance

Critical for ES cell maintenance and considered the primary Cdk

[20, 42, 85]


Critical for β-cell development

Not expressed in ES cells

[22, 25, 43, 57, 58]


Not expressed

Expressed at high levels

[22, 86]

Cyclin D1

Expressed at high levels

Expressed at low levels


Cyclin D2

Critical for development and highly expressed

Not expressed in ES cells

[62, 63]

Cyclin E

Expressed but no importance

Critical for maintaining the pluripotent state of ES cells

[50, 51, 87, 88]

  1. ES embryonic stem