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Table 1 Differences between the cell cycle machinery of β cells and ES cells

From: The cell cycle as a brake for β-cell regeneration from embryonic stem cells

Cell cycle machinery Beta cells ES cells References
Cdk2 Expressed but no functional importance Critical for ES cell maintenance and considered the primary Cdk [20, 42, 85]
Cdk4 Critical for β-cell development Not expressed in ES cells [22, 25, 43, 57, 58]
Cdk6 Not expressed Expressed at high levels [22, 86]
Cyclin D1 Expressed at high levels Expressed at low levels [62]
Cyclin D2 Critical for development and highly expressed Not expressed in ES cells [62, 63]
Cyclin E Expressed but no importance Critical for maintaining the pluripotent state of ES cells [50, 51, 87, 88]
  1. ES embryonic stem