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Table 1 Comparison between different stem cells

From: Mesenchymal stem cells in cardiac regeneration: a detailed progress report of the last 6 years (2010–2015)

Potency Totipotent: zygote – morula Pluripotent Pluripotent Multipotent
Pluripotent: inner cell mass of blastocyst
Major sources Inner cell mass of blastocyst Reprogramming of adult cells Bone marrow, peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood Bone marrow, adipose tissues, umbilical cord matrix
Cell surface markers hESC lines: SSEA-4, Tra 1-60, Tra 1-81 [273] Cell surface antigenic markers expressed on ESCs, e.g. SSEA-3 in human, SSEA-1 in mouse [274] CD34 [275], CD133+ [276] CD70+, CD90+, CD105+ [277]
mESC lines: NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, SSEA-1 [274] CD34 [278]
Potential clinical application in cardiac regeneration • Yield a variety of cardiomyocyte-atrial, ventricular and sinus-nodal like cells [279]
• Isolation of pure ventricular cardiomyocyte population using adenovirus vectors [280]
Generation of cardiomyocyte sheet along with endothelial cells using angiogenic. factors (VEGF) [281] No transdifferentiation into cardiac cells in ischaemic tissues [282] • Improves heart function
• Increase in augmented angiogenesis
• Reduction in fibrosis [283]
Advantages Differentiates into three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm Produced using adult cells, hence avoids ethical issues Proliferation and migration to site of injury • Allogenic grafting possible without immunosuppressive agents
• Limited inclination towards mutation
Limitations • Availability of cell lines for federally funded research
• Risk of producing teratomas from transplanting undifferentiating stem cells
• Generation and safe delivery of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes is strenuous [284]
• Tumour formation possible [285]
• Insufficiency in the DNA repair system caused by ageing, thereby limiting the function of HSCs [286]
• Insufficient information on signalling pathway [21]
• Possibility of gonadal dysfunction and infertility [287]
• Insufficient information on which MSC source to be used for the therapeutic strategy concerning a disease [19]
• Route of administration is uncertain for different diseases [19]
Ethical concerns • Involves human blastocyst
• Consent for blastocyst/egg donation is required
None specifically • Need for clinical parity
• Consideration required for cure of children withess severe sickle cell disease [287]
None specifically
  1. ESC embryonic stem cell, HSC hematopoietic stem cell, iPSC induced pluripotent stem cell, MSC mesenchymal stem cell, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor