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Table 2 Frequency of MSC production, proliferation potential and delivery methods for therapeutic targets in different body organs, as compared with BM-MSCs

From: Mesenchymal stem cells in cardiac regeneration: a detailed progress report of the last 6 years (2010–2015)

Different sources of MSCs Frequency of productiona Potential of proliferationa Delivery methods for regeneration References
Bone marrow 1 in 3.4 × 104 cells Intravenously [332]
Umbilical cord matrix Low High Not specified [128, 333]
Amnion High Low Not specified [334]
Placenta High High Not specified [128]
Adipose tissue High High Not specified [55, 105, 128]
Peripheral blood High High Intravenously [128, 335]
Cord blood Low High Intramyocardial, intravenous, intracoronary [103, 336, 337]
  1. aIn comparison with the BM-MSCs
  2. BM-MSC bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell, MSC mesenchymal stem cell