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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Combined transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells for tissue engineering: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author, year Animal Number of animals used for intervention, EPC + MSC Number of animals used for controls, EPC/MSC Number of cells used for intervention, EPC + MSC Number of cells used as controls, EPC/MSC Time of cell therapy after making the model Time point of index measure Index of measure
Cardiovascular
 Suuronen, 2007 [2] Rats 8 7/6 5 × 105 + 5 × 105 1 × 106/1 × 106 21 days 28 days 1. LVEF, FS
2. Infarct area
3. Infarct length
4. Heart rate
5. Arteriole density
 Derval, 2008 [3] Mice 14 14/14 5 × 105 + 5 × 106 5 × 105/5 × 106 30 days 45 days 1. Capillary density
2. Scar thickness
3. Infarct size
4. Heart rate
5. dp/dt
 Zhang, 2008 [11] Rats 11 9/10 1 × 106 + 1 × 106 2 × 106/2 × 106 28 days 84 days 1. Cardiac function and hemodynamics (ejection fraction, FS, LVEDD, LVEDP, +dp/dt, –dp/dt)
2. Capillary density and regional myocardial blood flow
3. Myocardial fibrosis
4. Angiogenic growth factor protein and mRNA expression
 Yi, 2010 [13] Rats 6 4/6 0.5 ml + 0.5 ml 1 ml/1 ml 7–10 days 28 days 1. Hemodynamics (LVSP, LVEDP, +dp/dt, –dp/dt)
2. Infarct size
3. Capillary density
 Xiaolin, 2010 [14] Rats 8 8/8 2 × 106 + 0.5 × 107 × 3 2 × 106 7 days, 14 days 35 days Cardiac function
 Yuhui, 2010 [12] Rats 10 10/10 5 × 106 + 5 × 106 5 × 106/5 × 106 7 days 28 days Cardiac function (LVSP, LVEDP, +dp/dt, –dp/dt)
Bone
 Zigdon-Giladi, 2015 [17] Rats 2/8 5 × 105 + 5 × 105 4 weeks and 12 weeks 1. Blood vessel density
2. Vertical bone height
 Zigdon-Giladi, 2014 [18] Rats 8/6 5 × 105 + 5 × 105 12 weeks 1. Bone volume fraction (BV/TV)
2. Tissue mineral density (TMD)
 Shaolong, 2014 [16] Rabbits 12 12/12 14 days 14 days and 28 days 1. Vessel density
 Xian, 2013 [8] Rabbits 6 6/6 3 days, 7 days, and 14 days 1. ALP activity
2. The OC expression
3. Cell proliferation activity
 Li, 2013 [19] Dogs 24 h, 3 days, 7 days, and 14 days 1. ALP activity
2. Mineralized nodule
3. Gene expression of key osteogenic markers
4. Matrigel 2D assay
 Seebach, 2012 [20] Rats 6 6/6 5 × 105 5 × 105/5 × 105 1 week 1. Area of neovascularization
2. VEGF release
 Huiping, 2011 [21] Rats 6 6/6 1 × 105 + 1 × 105 1 × 105/1 × 105 1. ALP activity
2. Cell proliferation activity
 Fedorovich, 2010 [22] Goats 1 × 105 + 1 × 105 –/2 × 105 2 weeks, 6 weeks 1. In-vitro analysis of 2D/3D network formation on Matrigel and osteogenic differentiation
2. In-vivo vascularization and bone formation
 Usami, 2009 [23] Mice 5 × 106 + 1 × 107 5 × 106/1 × 107 7 days, 14 days 1. ALP activity
2. Soft X-ray
3. Implant capillary scoring
Cerebral vessels
 Zigen, 2013 [9] Rats 25 25/25 2 × 106 + 2 × 106 –/2 × 106 1 day 7 days 1. Cerebral infarction volume
2. BDNF
3. Neurological score
 Yao, 2014 [10] Rats 16 16/16 2 × 106 + 2 × 106 2 × 106/2 × 106 1 day 28 days 1. Cerebral infarction volume
2. BDNF
3. Neurological score
 Fenfang, 2014 [15] Rats 20 20/20 2 × 106 + 2 × 106 2 × 106/2 × 106 26h 7 days 1. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bax
2. The Neurological Score
  1. not applicable, ALP alkaline phosphatase, BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor, −dp/dt maximum left ventricular pressure rate of fall, +dp/dt maximum left ventricular pressure rate of rise, EPC endothelial progenitor cell, FS, fractional shortening, LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic diametric, LVEDP left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LVSP left ventricular systolic pressure, MSC mesenchymal stem cell, OC osteocalcin, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor