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Table 3 Intrahepatic animal stem cell tracking studies with reporter genes

From: Noninvasive in-vivo tracing and imaging of transplanted stem cells for liver regeneration

Study Species (n) Animal model Cell type Reporter genes Reporter probe Delivery/number of cells infused Results
Duan et al., 2007 [45] Mice (12) NOD-SCID model Xenogeneic EPCs Luc BLI Directly intrahepatic into parenchyma/105 Detection of luminescent stem cells for at least 1 week
Boeykens et al., 2013 [46] Rats (13) PHx of MCD-induced steatotic liver model Allogeneic BMSCs Luc BLI Portal vein and tail vein/106 Detection of luminescent stem cells for 24 hours Intraportal cell injection was superior to intravenous cell injection for homing capacity
Di Rocco et al., 2012 [48] Mice (32) CCl4-induced ALF model Autologous AD-MSCs Fluc BLI Intrasplenic injection/105 Luciferase-positive cells were visible for 2 months Labeled cells exhibited a hepatocyte-like morphology and AFP expression was detected at injured sites
Li et al., 2009 [49] Mice (unknown) CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis model Allogeneic BMSCs EGFP FLI Tail vein/106 Labeled cells were detected for up to 6 weeks The presence of double-positive cells for EGFP and α-SMA in the fibrous liver demonstrated the homing ability of BMSCs to damaged tissue and differentiation potential into myofibroblasts
Song et al., 2004 [51] Mice (unknown) PHx-induced liver injury model Autologous LPCs GFP FLI Intrasplenic injection/106 GFP-positive cells could be visualized for up to 18 weeks, and accounted for 40–50 % of regenerative hepatocytes
Knoop et al., 2011 [52] Mice (47) Huh7-induced HCC model Xenogeneic BMSCs NIS 123I (γ-camera) 124I (PET) Tail vein/105 NIS-MSC mediated concentration of iodine radioisotopes was detected in 74 % of tumors with a half-life period of 4 hours 124I as reporter probe for PET imaging provided better resolution and sensitivity
Knoop et al., 2013 [53] Mice (57) Huh7-induced HCC model Xenogeneic BMSCs NIS 131I (γ-camera) Tail vein/105 NIS-MSC mediated concentration of radioisotopes was detected in 67 % of tumors with a half-life period of 3.7 hours
Kanazawa et al., 2011 [54] Rats (24) I/R injury model Allogeneic BMSCs LacZ Luc X-gal (microscope) (BLI) Portal vein/106 BLI and histological findings showed that injected stem cells survived in the remnant liver for up to 168 hours LacZ-positive stem cells were mainly located around the periportal regions
  1. NOD-SCID nonobese diabetic–severe combined immunodeficiency disease, EPC endothelial progenitor cell, Luc luciferase, BLI bioluminescence imaging, PHx partial hepatectomy, MCD methionine/choline-deficient, BMSC bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell, CCl4 carbon tetrachloride, ALF acute liver failure, AD-MSC adipose-derived mesenchymal cell, Fluc firefly luciferase, AFP alpha fetal protein, EGFP enhanced green fluorescent protein, FLI fluorescence imaging, α-SMA alpha smooth muscle actin, LPC liver progenitor cell, GFP green fluorescent protein, HCC hepatic cellular cancer, NIS sodium iodide symporter, PET positron emission tomography, I/R ischemia–reperfusion, LacZ galactosidase genes