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Fig. 1 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Fig. 1

From: TGF-β1-induced differentiation of SHED into functional smooth muscle cells

Fig. 1

SMC-specific marker gene expression profile of SHED-derived SMCs induced with different concentrations and combinations of TGF-β1 and BMP4. Expression levels of SMC-specific marker genes relative to GAPDH with (a) different doses of TGF-β1 induction. There was significant upregulation of α-SMA and Calponin 1 gene expression levels as the TGF-β1 concentration is increased from 2.5 ng/ml to 10 ng/ml (p < 0.05). There were however no significant differences between the 10 ng/ml, 20 ng/ml and 30 ng/ml TGF-β1 treatment groups (p > 0.05). SM22α gene expression was a little different, by which 5 ng/ml TGF-β1 had a same effect with 10 ng/ml, 20 ng/ml and 30 ng/ml. b Different doses of BMP4 induction and with different combinations of TGF-β (10 ng/ml) and BMP4 (5, 10, 30 ng/ml). There were no significant differences amongst the different doses of BMP4 (p > 0.05), and also no significant differences amongst the different combinations of TGF-β and BMP4 (p > 0.05). c 10 ng/ml TGF-β1, 10 ng/ml BMP4 and the combination of 10 ng/ml TGF-β1 with BMP4. The effect of TGF-β1 was weakened when combined with BMP4 (p < 0.05). * ^ Φ: p < 0.05. B means BMP4; TB means TGF-β and BMP4. All experiments were performed three times (N = 3). BMP4 bone morphogenetic protein 4, TGF-β1 transforming growth factor beta 1, α-SMA alpha-smooth muscle actin

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