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Table 3 Comparison of patients’ outcome between studied groups

From: A new method for treating fecal incontinence by implanting stem cells derived from human adipose tissue: preliminary findings of a randomized double-blind clinical trial

Variable Total Control group hADSC-treated group p
Wexner score (mean ± SD)
 Baseline 8.17 ± 3.74 6.0 ± 1.18 10.33 ± 0.87 0.02*
 Post intervention 4.56 ± 3.22 2.67 ± 0.62 6.44 ± 1.08 0.36#
Standardized mean difference (95% confidence interval)a 3.73 (2.61–4.86) 3.63 (2.0–5.07) 3.97 (2.31–5.62) 0.41
Percentage of muscle occupied area (mean ± SD) 15.25 ± 7.34 11.65 ± 7.74 18.85 ± 5.06 0.02*
Electromyography recording (n, %)
 Negative 10 (58.82) 9 (100.0) 1 (12.50) 0.002*
 Positive 7 (41.18) 0 (0.0) 7 (87.50)  
  1. Control group sphincteroplasty alone, hADSC-treated group human adipose-derived stem cells + sphincteroplasty, SD standard deviation
  2. aBased on Hedge’s g
  3. *Based on Mann–Whitney U test
  4. #Based on nonparametric ANCOVA test