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Table 2 Factors and results in mouse direct cardiac reprogramming

From: Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes

Combination of factors Original cell Markers and efficiency AP Ca2+ transient Beating
GMT [15] CF, TTDF cTnT+: 30% of α-MHC cells; α-actinin+: most of cTnT+ cells + + +
OSKM; JI1, BMP4 [29] MEF cTnT+: 40% + + +
GMT [16] CF α-MHC-EYFP+: ~40% at border zone + + +
miR-1,133,208,499; JAK inhibitor I [23] CF α-MHC-GFP+: ~28% + + +
GMT, Myocd, Srf, Mesp1, Smarcd3 [42] MEF Myh6.Egfp+: 2.4% +
Hand2, Nkx2.5, Gata4, Mef2c, Tbx5 [43] MEF, CF Troponin T-GCaMP5+ activity: 1.6% ND + +
OSKM; PEG hydrogel [44] MEF, TTF Beat patch per cm2: 9.4%
α-actinin+: 1.72 fold/control
ND + +
GHMT, MyoD domain [45] HF, LBF, TTF cTnT+: 4.9% ND + +
GHMT and SB431542 [19] CF Troponin T-GCaMP5+ activity: 9.27% ND +
GHMT, Myod domain [46] HF cTnT+: 19% ND + +
GMT, Mesp1, Myocd and miR-133 [28] MEF, CF α-MHC-GFP & cTnT+: 8.1%; α-actinin+: 19.9% ND  
OCT4, SCPF [35] MEF, TTF beating clusters:~40/well of 24-well plate + + +
GHMT [47] MEF, Sarcomere+: ~32%; NPPA+: 35% of sarcomere+; MYL2+: 22% of sarcomere+ + ND +
GMT mRNA, C_lipo [17] CF α-MHC-GFP+: 0.5% of transfected CF ND ND
miR-1, miR-133, miR-208, miR-499 [24] CF tdTomato+ Troponin T+:12% + ND +
OSKM, Ascorbic acid [48] MEF GATA4+: ~40%; MHC+: ~24% + ND +
CHIR99021, RepSox, Forskolin, VPA [30] MEF, TTF α-actinin+: 14.5%; α-MHC+: 9% + + +
GHMT, miR-1, miR-133, Y-27632, A83-01 [20] MEF, AF cTnT+: ~60% with A83-01; α-actinin+: ~60% with A83-01 + + +
  1. A diverse range of factor combinations and original cells used in mouse cardiac reprogramming result in different efficiency, revealed by the expression of cardiomyocyte markers, electrophysiological characters, and beating property
  2. GMT: Gata4, Mef2c, Tbx5; GHMT: Gata4, Hand2, Mef2c, Tbx5; OSKM: Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc; SCPF: SB431542, CHIR99021, parnate, forskolin; Y-27632, Rock inhibitor; A83-01, TGF-β inhibitor
  3. AF adult fibroblast, α-MHC α-myosin heavy chain, AP action potential, CF cardiac fibroblast, cTnT cardiac troponin T, HF head fibroblast, LBF low body fibroblast, MEF mouse embryonic fibroblast, ND not detected, TTDF tail-tip dermal fibroblast, TTF tail tip fibroblast