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Table 4 The differences of cardiomyocytes induced from iPSCs and direct reprogramming

From: Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes

Properties iPSC/hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes Direct reprogrammed cardiomyocytes Adult cardiomyocytes
Differentiation efficiency >80% ~60% cTnT+ α-actinin+ [20] /
Size Small size (membrane capacitance 18 pF) [38], 1/10 of physical size of adult cardiomyocytes Small size Membrane capacitance 150 pF
Nucleus Mono-nuclear [39] Mono-nuclear Bi- or multi-nuclear
Morphology Circular or irregular shape Spindle-shape Rod-shape
Sarcomere Better organized Disarrayed Highly organized
Primary metabolic substrate Glucose Glucose Fatty acid
Markers α-MHC+, α-actinin+, Troponin T+ α-MHC+, α-actinin+, Troponin T+ α-MHC+, α-actinin+, Troponin T+
Ca2+ transient + + (few induced cardiomyocytes) +
Electrophysiology Resting membrane potential –60 mV (slower action potential) Resting membrane potential –48 mV (slowest action potential) Resting membrane potential –90 mV (quicker action potential)
  1. hPSC human pluripotent stem cell, iPSC induce pluripotent stem cell, / no data