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Table 1 Translational studies that employed MSC-derived exosomes to treat liver injury

From: Role of mesenchymal stem cells, their derived factors, and extracellular vesicles in liver failure

Disease/model Origin of exosomes Method/dose Therapeutic capacity References
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury mouse model Human ESC-derived HuES9.E1 MSCs Intrasplenic injection of 0.4 μg exosomes (in 100 μl PBS) Elicited hepatoprotective effects against injury primarily by activating of proliferative and regenerative responses Cheau Yih Tan [26]
CCl4-induced fibrotic liver mouse model Human umbilical cord-MSCs Liver injection of 250 μg hucMSC-Ex of 330 μL PBS Ameliorate liver fibrosis by inhibiting the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and protecting hepatocytes Tingfen Li [27]
CCl4-induced liver failure mouse model Human umbilical cord MSCs Tail vein or intragastric administration of 16 mg/kg exosomes Promoted the recovery of hepatic oxidant injury via the delivery of GPX1 Yongmin Yan [28]
D-GalN/LPS-induced liver failure mouse model Human menstrual blood-derived stem cells Tail vein injection of 1 μg/μl MenSC-Ex in PBS (The volume was not mentioned.) Markedly improved liver function, enhanced survival rates, and inhibited liver cell apoptosis Lu Chen [29]