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Fig. 2 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Fig. 2

From: Human dental pulp pluripotent-like stem cells promote wound healing and muscle regeneration

Fig. 2

In vitro mesodermal differentiation of DPPSC. a-c Immunofluorescence analysis for VE-cadherin (green; a, b), CD31 (red; a) and vWF (red; b) in DPPSC differentiated for 28 days to the endothelial lineage (a, b); undifferentiated DPPSC were used as negative control (c). d-f Immunofluorescence analysis for the smooth muscle markers calponin (green) and αSMA (red) in differentiated DPPSC from passage (P) 5 (d) and P10 (e) cultured in smooth muscle differentiation medium for 10 days; undifferentiated DPPSC were used as negative control (f). g Immunofluorescence analysis of DPPSC co-cultured with C2C12 cells at day 5 of myogenic induction. Arrows indicate the presence of human nuclei (stained for hLMNA in green), inside the formed myotubes expressing MyHC (red). h Immunofluorescence analysis of tGFP+ DPPSC (green) co-cultured with C2C12 cells. Arrows indicate MyHC+ chimeric myotubes. i Immunofluorescence analysis for hLMNA (green) and MyHC (red) in undifferentiated DPPSC was used as a negative control. For a-i, nuclei are counterstained with DAPI (blue). Scale bars: 100 μm. j Quantitative analysis of DPPSC differentiated towards the endothelial lineage expressing VE-cadherin (green), vWF or CD31 alone (red), double positive for VE-cadherin and CD31 (left graph in orange) or for VE-cadherin and vWF (right graph in orange), or none of these markers (blue; n = 3 independent experiments). k Quantitative analysis of DPPSC differentiated towards the smooth muscle lineage expressing calponin (green), αSMA (red), both smooth muscle markers (orange) or none of these markers (blue) at P5 (left graph) and P10 (right graph). No statistically significant difference was found (n = 3 independent experiments). l Fusion index analysis in DPPSC-C2C12 co-cultures (***p < 0.001, n = 6 independent experiments). m Quantitative analysis of the number of MyHC+ myotubes in DPPSC-C2C12 co-cultures (*p < 0.05, n = 6 independent experiments). For k-m, two-tailed Student’s t test was used and results are displayed as mean ± s.e.m

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