Skip to main content

Table 1 In vitro studies of vascular lineage differentiation from multipotent stem cells

From: The combination of stem cells and tissue engineering: an advanced strategy for blood vessels regeneration and vascular disease treatment

Stem cell source Vascular lineage Cell origin Differentiation factors Scaffold Selection and characterization Implant site Implant/culturing duration Patency Reference
BM-MSCs SMC/EC Rabbit FBS; L-glutamine; L-ascorbic-acid-2-phosphate 2-mm diameter mandrel Suture-holding; strength; platelet counts CA 4 weeks 100% [19]
BM-MSCs SMC/EC Ovine FBS; VEGF; bFGF; ascorbic acid; TGF-b1 CA decellularized SM a-actin; PKH26; vWF CA 5 months 100% [20]
AD-SCs SMC Human Media-199; FBS; angiotensin II; TGF-b1; phingosylphosphorylcholine Decellularized; greater saphenous vein SMC; calponin; caldesmon; MHC; ANG; APC; TGFb1 Bioreactor system - - [21]
AD-SCs SMC Human TGF-b1; BMP4; FBS; penicillin-streptomycin PGA Smooth muscle alpha actin; a-SMA; calponin; SM-MHC; Bioreactor system 8 weeks - [22]
HF-SCs SMC Human FBS; isobutyl-methylxanthine; dexamethasone; insulin; indomethacin Mandrel of poly(di-methylsiloxane) bFGF; TGF-b1; a-SMA; calponin - 2 weeks - [23]
HF-SCs SMC Newbon lamb DMEM; FBS SIS EGFP; a-SMA; calponin; MHC - 2 weeks - [24]
ESCs SMC Nude mice All-trans-retinoid acid (RA); DMSO 3D macro-porous NF scaffolds α-SM; SM-MHC; OCT4 Subcutaneous pockets on nude mice 2 weeks - [25]
hiPSCs SMC Human EB; FBS; NEAA; glutamine; mercaptoethanol PGA a-SMA; SM-MHC; calponin; SM22a Nude rats AA 2 weeks 100% [26]
HUVECs HAF-HUVEC Human FCS; EGM2 Bioreactor system Collagen IV; VEGF; a-SMA; Ki67 - 2 weeks - [27]
PB-EPC PB-EPC Ovine FBS; medium with low glucose; L-glutamine Decell porcine CA Actin; MHC Arterial interposition 4 months 100% [28]
  1. AD adipose, bFGF fibroblast growth factor basic, BM bone marrow, EB embryoid body, EC endothelial cell, EPC endothelial progenitor cell, ESC embryonic stem cell, FBS fetal bovine serum, HF hair follicle, hiPSC human induced pluripotent stem, MSC mesenchymal stem cell, PB peripheral blood, PGA phosphoglyceric acid, SC stem cell, SIS small intestinal submucosa, SMC smooth muscle cell, TGF transforming growth factor, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor, PGA polyglycolic acid, AA abdominal aorta, CA carotid artery, EGFP enhanced green fluorescent protein, NF nanofibrous, a-SMA alpha-smooth muscle antibody, APC antigen presenting cell