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Fig. 1 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Fig. 1

From: Lineage- and developmental stage-specific mechanomodulation of induced pluripotent stem cell differentiation

Fig. 1

Characterization of electrospun substrates and experimental schematic to examine the effects of temporally varied substrate stiffness. a Scanning electron micrographs and fiber diameter histograms (insets) of electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and polyether-ketone-ketone (PEKK) substrates (scale bar = 2 μm). b XPS spectra of electrospun PCL and PEKK substrates with/without collagen (COL) conjugation. c Representative force-indentation curves of electrospun PCL and PEKK substrates by atomic force microscopy. d A schematic of the experimental design to examine the effects of temporally varied substrate stiffness on each developmental stage of differentiation. Human iPSCs were differentiated along three phenotypes from each germ layer lineage via sequential supplementation of biochemicals (e.g., Stage 1: ectoderm; Stage 2: neural progenitor; Stage 3: motor neurons). Human iPSCs were cultured on tissue culture polystyrene plates (TCPS) prior to passaging for Stage 1 differentiation to either mesendoderm or ectoderm on soft (PCL) or stiff (PEKK) electrospun substrates. Alternatively, cells were continuously cultured on TCPS during Stage 1 differentiation before being seeded onto the soft or stiff electrospun substrates for further differentiation to Stage 2. Similar passaging and differentiation on either TCPS or the soft/stiff substrates were performed for Stage 3. At the end of each differentiation stage, the samples were analyzed for gene and protein expression of lineage/developmental stage-specific markers

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