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Fig. 4 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Fig. 4

From: Lineage- and developmental stage-specific mechanomodulation of induced pluripotent stem cell differentiation

Fig. 4

The stage-specific effects of substrate stiffness on chondrocyte differentiation. Human iPSCs were differentiated on either soft (PCL) or stiff (PEKK) electrospun substrates to (a, b) mesoderm or (c, d) chondrocyte lineage. a Gene expression of mesoderm markers KDR and PDGFB was significantly upregulated on stiff substrates as compared to soft substrates. b Immunofluorescent imaging and quantification of percent-positive cells showed that BRACHYURY protein expression was significantly higher on stiff substrates (green: BRACHYURY; blue: DAPI; scale bar = 100 μm). c Gene expression of chondrocyte markers COL2A1 and SOX9 was upregulated on soft substrates as compared to stiff substrates. d Immunofluorescent imaging and quantification of percent-positive cells showed that collagen type II protein expression was significantly higher on soft substrates (green: COL II; blue: DAPI; scale bar = 100 μm). The dashed line represents the average fold change of differentiated cells on TCPS. # p < 0.05, ## p < 0.01, versus TCPS differentiated controls. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, between substrates

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