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Table 1 Crystalline structures of identified phases obtained by laser ablation and percentage of oxide layer in the irradiated titanium surfaces

From: Laser-modified titanium surfaces enhance the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

Phase Oxide layer (%)  
132 J/cm2 210 J/cm2 235 J/cm2
α titanium (hexagonal) 47.1 42.2 43.5
β titanium (cubic) 11.2 9.4 5.9
TiO (rhombohedral) 5.3 6.4 11.4
Ti2O (rhombohedral) 27.7 38.5 7.3
Ti3O (rhombohedral) 1.3 30.8
Ti6O (rhombohedral) 8.6 2.2 1.0