Skip to main content

Table 2 Experimental studies testing the efficacy of MSC-derived EVs in IRI-AKI

From: Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles for kidney repair: current status and looming challenges

Type of model Species Intervention Administration methods Main findings Reference
In vitro, tubular epithelial cells - Human bone marrow MSC-derived EVs Incubation in culture media • EVs incorporated into injured cells
• Downregulated miRNAs associated with apoptosis, cytoskeleton and hypoxia
• Downregulated microRNAs involved in apoptosis, fibrosis, hypoxia, and cytoskeletal reorganization
Lindoso et al. 2014 [32]
In vivo Rat Human bone marrow MSC-derived EVs Intravenous • EVs decreased tubular injury and apoptosis
• Improved cell proliferation and renal function
• Transferred RNA-based information to recipient cells
Gatti et al. 2011 [33]
In vivo Rat Autologous bone marrow MSC-derived EVs Intravenous • EVs decreased tubular injury, apoptosis, and inflammation
• Improved renal function
Wang et al. 2014 [34]
In vivo Rat Human umbilical cord MSC-derived EVs Intravenous • EVs decreased renal oxidative stress
• Increased renal cell proliferation, attenuated apoptosis and fibrosis, and normalized renal function
Zhang et al. 2014 [35]
In vivo; in vitro, tubular epithelial cells Rat Human umbilical cord MSC-derived EVs Intravenous; incubation in culture media • EVs improved renal function
• Decreased tubular injury, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and necrosis
Zhang et al. 2016 [36]
In vivo Rat Human umbilical cord MSC-derived EVs Intravenous • EVs reduced apoptosis and enhanced tubular cell proliferation
• Improved renal function and ameliorated tubular injury and fibrosis
• Increased renal angiogenesis
• Transferred proangiogenic-related VEGF and mRNAs to recipient cells
Zou et al. 2016 [37]
In vivo; in vitro, tubular epithelial cells Rat Human umbilical cord MSC-derived EVs Intravenous; incubation in culture media • EVs upregulated proangiogenic factors
• Decreased tubular cell apoptosis, collagen deposition, and fibrosis
Ju et al. 2015 [38]
In vivo; in vitro, umbilical vein endothelial cells Mouse Allogenic kidney resident MSC-derived EVs Intravenous; incubation in culture media • EVs incorporated into endothelial cells, decreased apoptosis, and increased proliferation and tube formation
• Selectively engrafted into injured cells and improved renal function
• Ameliorated peritubular capillary rarefaction and improved endothelial cell proliferation
Choi et al. 2014 [39]
In vivo Rat Human umbilical cord MSC-derived EVs Intravenous • EVs increased renal proliferation
• Decreased renal inflammation, tubular and glomerular injury, vascular damage, apoptosis, and fibrosis
• Preserved renal function
Zou et al. 2014 [40]
In vivo Rat Allogenic adipose tissue MSC-derived EVs Intravenous • EVs increased renal angiogenesis and decreased inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, fibrosis
• Improved renal function
Lin et al. 2016 [41]
Ex vivo model of renal ischemia, post-circulatory death and pre-transplant Rat Allogenic bone marrow MSC-derived EVs Incubation in buffering solution of donated kidney • EVs decreased global ischemic damage
• Preserved cellular metabolism and viability
Gregorini et al. 2017 [42]
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, EV extracellular vesicle, IRI ischemia-reperfusion injury, MSC mesenchymal stem cell, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor