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Table 1 Preconditioning strategies to improve MSC potency in lung diseases

From: Strategies to improve the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stromal cells in respiratory diseases

Preconditioning strategy Human MSC source In vitro effects
(compared to naïve MSCs)
In vivo effects
(compared to naïve MSCs)
Lung disease model Reference
ARDS serum(0.5%; 16 h) Bone marrow ↑ IL-10 and IL-1RN mRNA expression/protein levels↓ IL-6, IL-8, IL-1α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, TGF-β2, and β3 expression/levels ↓ Inflammatory cells in BALF; histological lung scores; lung vascular permeability
↑ IL-10 levels in plasma and BALF
↓ IL-6 and IL-8 levels in plasma
↓ IL-1β and TNF-α levels in BALF
LPS-induced ARDS [42]
(3 μmol/L; 1 week)
Adipose tissue ↑ VEGF protein levels
↑ Stimulation of murine lung epithelial cell proliferation
↑ FGF-2, VEGF, and HGF protein levels in lung homogenate
↓ Morphometric changes
Smoke-induced emphysema [43]
(2 mM; 24 h)
Embryonic tissues ↑ Intracellular glutathione content
↓ ROS levels
↓ Lung injury score; collagen deposition; inflammatory cells in BALF; and apoptotic lung cells
↓ IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β protein levels in BALF
↑ Survival rates
Bleomycin-induced lung injury [44]
(5 and 10 μM; 24 h)
Bone marrow PGE-2 activation
↓ TNF-α secretion by LPS-activated macrophages
  1. BALF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, FGF fibroblast growth factor, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor