Skip to main content

Table 1 hES-AS secrete a variety of factors with effects on neurons or with antiprotease activity

From: Safety and efficacy of human embryonic stem cell-derived astrocytes following intrathecal transplantation in SOD1G93A and NSG animal models

  7-day astrocytes
(ng/ml/106 cells)
28-day astrocytes
(ng/ml/106 cells)
Secreted factors with effects on neurons
 Osteopontin (OPN) 53.1 ± 29 56.8 ± 5.5
 Dickkopf-3 (DKK-3) 43.1 ± 14.2 33.8 ± 1.6
 Thrombospondin (TSP-1) 22.7 ± 11.5 118.9 ± 36.8
 Secreted Frizzled Protein (sFRP3) 20.8 ± 10.9 41.2 ± 23.0
 Brevican proteoglycan 15.6 ± 4.9 12.6 ± 3.3
 Tripeptidyl peptidase (CLN2) 11.5 ± 4.2 20.1 ± 11.7
 Clusterin 9.5 ± 3.2 6.5 ± 0.5
 Midkine 8.4 ± 3.0 6.1 ± 3.5
 NSE 3.5 ± 1.8 0.9 ± 0.2
 MIF chemokine 1.8 ± 0.6 0.4 ± 0.1
 CXCL16 1.5 ± 0.8 2.1 ± 0.2
 Thrombospondin-2 0.85 ± 0.4 2.3 ± 0.4
 GRFα-1 0.45 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.6
 VEGF 0.05 ± 0.02 0.23 ± 0.09
Antiprotease activity
 Fetuin A 1816.0 ± 677 1404.7 ±+ 129.4
 Tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease TIMP-2 16.6 ± 6.8 14.5 ± 0.8
 PAI-1 Serpine 1 protease inhibitor 7.2 ± 6.2 54.9 ± 5.9
 Tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease TIMP-1 7.0 ± 3.8 6.5 ± 0.8
 Serpin A4 4.3 ± 2.5 4.0 ± 0.4
  1. Results shown as mean ± standard deviation for triplicates of hES-AS differentiated for 7 days and duplicates of hES-AS differentiated for 28 days
  2. Secretome analysis performed on 48-h conditioned media of hES-AS. Listed are factors with activities in neuroprotection, neurogenesis, axon growth or guidance, as well as antiproteases. For relevance to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, see Discussion. Complete secretome list presented in Additional file 2: Table S1
  3. GRF GDNF family receptor, hES-AS human embryonic stem cell-derived astrocytes (differentiated from APCs for 7 days), MIF macrophage migration inhibitory factor, NSE neuron specific enolase, PAI plasminogen activator inhibitor, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor