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Table 1 Factors that may be involved in the regulation of MSC function in SLE

From: Genetic contribution to mesenchymal stem cell dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus

Factor Immunological effects Reference
With direct evidence  
 OAZ Impair MSC regulation of B cells, leading to autoantibody production [41]
 Pbx1-d Result in the generation of auto-reactive CD4+ T cells [40]
 p16INK4A Inhibit TGF-β secretion, contribute to the reduction of Treg cells [52]
With indirect evidence  
 PD-1 Loss of peripheral self-tolerance in B cells [23]
 FcγRIIB Acceleration of dendritic cell maturation [55]
 STAT1 Associated with IDO production [60]
 IFN γ Stimulation of IDO production [17]
 IL-6 Macrophage polarization [29]
 IDO Inhibition of T-cell proliferation [17]
 CCL2 Inhibition of B-cell proliferation and differentiation [6]
 PGE2 Inhibition of T-cell proliferation and monocyte differentiation [30]
 Galectin-3 Involved in T-cell proliferation [64]
 TNF-α MSC migration [61, 62]
 Leptin MSC senescence [63]