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Table 3 Characteristics of different types of stem cells for cardiac regeneration

From: The march of pluripotent stem cells in cardiovascular regenerative medicine

  BMSCs MSCs MBs CSCs EPCs ESCs iPSCs
Origin Bone marrow Bone marrow, heart, lung, adipose tissue Muscle Heart Bone marrow, peripheral blood ICM of blastocysts Diverse tissues
Differentiated cells
 CMs Controversial Controversial Controversial Possible Impossible Possible Possible
 Endothelial cells Possible Possible No report Possible Possible Possible Possible
 SMCs Possible Possible No report Possible Impossible Possible Possible
 Other cell types Unknown Possible No report Controversial Impossible Possible Possible
Immunogenicity Unlikely if autologous Unlikely if autologous Unlikely if autologous Unlikely if autologous Unlikely if autologous Exists Unlikely if autologous
Electrochemical coupling No Yes No Possible Possible Possible
Paracrine effect Exists Exists Exists Exists Exists Exists Exists
In vitro expansion Limited Limited Limited Limited Limited Yes Yes
Clinical safety Yes Yes Side effects reported Yes Yes Teratoma formation, ethical concerns, arrhythmia Teratoma formation, mutagenesis, arrhythmia
  1. BMSC bone marrow stem cell, MSC mesenchymal stem cell, MB mybolast, CSC cardiac stem cell, EPC endothelial progenitor cell, ESC embryonic stem cell, ICM inner cell mass, iPSC induced pluripotent stem cell, CM cardiomyocyte