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Table 4 Overview of the main MSC genetic modification (GM) strategies and their most commonly used constituents, as utilized in experimental cancer cytotherapy studies (N = 67)

From: Mesenchymal stem cells in preclinical cancer cytotherapy: a systematic review

GM strategy Typical GM components
Antitumor agent(s) Adoption rate (%) Gene introduction vector * Cellular vehicle * Tumor target *
Antitumorigenic transgene overexpression Anti-proliferative immune regulators (e.g., IFN-β) 41 AV BM-MSC Various
Pro-apoptotic molecule (e.g., sTRAIL) 20.5 LV Various Various
Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) Cytosine deaminase (CD) + 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) 18.6 RV AT-MSC Various
Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) + ganciclovir (GSV) 8.5 RV AT-MSC Brain
  1. *Most frequently observed (> 50% frequency) parameters