Skip to main content

Table 1 The application potential of stem/progenitor cell-derived extracellular vesicles in kidney diseases

From: Application potential of stem/progenitor cell-derived extracellular vesicles in renal diseases

Stem cell type releasing EVs Animal models Transferring materials Target cells Biogenesis mechanisms Biological effects References
EPC Anti-Thy1.1glomerulonephritis rat model miRNA Injured glomerular cells Inhibit leukocyte infiltration and mesangial cell activation Improve kidney function [36]
IRI rat model miRNA (miR-126 and miR-296) Hypoxic renal resident cells Alter the proliferative phenotype of hypoxic renal resident cells and promote angiogenesis Protect the kidney from ischemic acute injury [18, 51]
SCID mice mRNA associated with NOS and PI3K/AKT ECs Activate the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway Trigger neovascularization, promote angiogenesis [17]
BMMSC IRI rat model miR-218 Injured ECs Enhance endothelial cell migration and stimulate a reparative phenotype Treat microvascular endothelial injury [64]
IRI rat model Chemokine receptors and complement-related proteins Macrophage and apoptotic cells Inhibit macrophage activity and promote phagocytosis of apoptotic cells Prevent early renal injury [37]
Rat renal transplant model for acute rejection EVs Induce accumulation of T cells and B cells in renal tissue Immunomodulatory of the immune system [41]
IRI rat model Adhesion molecules, mRNA and miRNA TECs Reduce TECs apoptosis and increase TECs proliferation Protect from AKI and from subsequent chronic renal damage [62]
Type 2 diabetic mice and insulin-resistant diabetic mice model EVs TECs Suppress the EMT of TECs Attenuated renal fibrosis [68]
UUO mouse model miRNA Proximal TECs Enhanced inhibition of TGF-β1-induced EMT Improve renal function [66]
UUO mouse model miRNA-let7c Damaged kidney cells Reduce collagen accumulation and fibrotic-related gene expression Alleviate kidney fibrosis [80]
hWJMSC IRI rat model miRNA ECs Inhibit the expression of CX3CL1 and reduce the quantity of CD68+macrophages Ameliorate renal injury in both the acute and chronic stage [43]
USC Type I diabetic rat model Growth factors, TGF-β1, angiopoietin, and BMP-7 Inhibit podocyte apoptosis and promote vascular regeneration and cell survival Prevent kidney injury from diabetes [55]
ECFC IRI rat model miR-486-5p ECs Target at PTEN/Akt pathway Protect the kidney from IRI injury [56,57,58]
HLSC SCID mouse model of AKI EVs Tubular cell Stimulate proliferation and inhibit cell apoptosis Promote AKI recovery [59]
GlMSC IRI rat model miRNAs TECs Activate TEC proliferation Promote the recovery of AKI [60]
RCSC HLA-G, costimulatory molecules and adhesion molecules DCs Suppress immune response Tumor immune escape and immune tolerance [76]
Genes associated with matrix remodeling, cell migration, tumor growth, and angiogenesis MSCs Induce a pro-tumorigenic phenotype Promote tumor growth [77]
RCSC(CD105+ cells) SCID mice Proangiogenic mRNA and miRNA Epithelial cells and ECs Trigger angiogenesis and promote the formation of premetastatic niche Promote renal cancer progression and lung metastases [79]
  1. EVs extracellular vesicles, EPC endothelial progenitor cells, MSC mesenchymal stromal cells, BMMSC bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, hWJMSC human Wharton-Jelly MSCs, USC urine-derived stem cells, ECFC endothelial colony-forming cells, HLSC human liver stem cells, GlMSC MSC-derived from the glomeruli, RCSC renal cancer stem cells, IRI ischemia-reperfusion injury, SCID severe combined immunodeficient, UUO unilateral ureteral obstruction, AKI acute kidney injury, NOS nitric oxide synthase, BMP-7 bone morphogenetic protein-7, ECs endothelial cells, TECs tubular epithelial cells, DCs dendritic cells, EMT epithelial–mesenchymal transition