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Fig. 5 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Fig. 5

From: The role of the vasculature niche on insulin-producing cells generated by transdifferentiation of adult human liver cells

Fig. 5

Conditioned media promotes pancreatic differentiation during the TD process. Conditioned media was collected after 48 h of co-culturing the ECFCs and MSCs (1:1 ratio). The media was added to the liver cell that was undergoing transdifferentiation either when fresh or after being heated to 56 °C (1:1 ratio with TD media), as illustrated in a. b The IPCs were analyzed for glucose-regulated insulin secretion. Insulin levels were analyzed using a specific human RIA kit (DPC) and compared to cells cultured in TD media (fresh or heated). Results are presented as average and SE for increases above secretion at low glucose in TD media, n ≥ 8 from three independent repeats in different donors, *P value < 0.01 compared to control treatment (ce). The conditioned media was added (1:1 ratio with TD media) at day 1 or day 3 of the TD process, and the pancreatic phenotype was analyzed by specific pancreatic gene expression (c, d) and glucose-induced insulin secretion (e). Transcript levels of the indicated genes are presented as average and SE for increases above cells treated with pTFs alone and normalized to β-actin levels. N = 3–4 independent repeats in different donors, *P value < 0.01 and **P value < 0.05 compared to control treatment. Insulin levels were analyzed using a specific human ELISA kit (ALPCO) and compared to cells cultured in TD media. The results are presented as average and SE normalized to cell number, n ≥ 8 from three different experiments, *P < 0.01 and **P < 0.05 compared to control treatment

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