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Table 1 Summary of study characteristics of included studies

From: Regenerative cell therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension in animal models: a systematic review

   Animal model characteristics Cell characteristics
Reference Country Species (strain) Intervention (days) Follow-up (days) Stem cell type Cell species of origin Tissue of origin for cell product Transplant type Dose Route Cell enhancement
Nagaya 2003 [32] Japan Rat (nude athymic) 7 14 EPC Human Umbilical cord blood Xenogenic 1,000,000 IV (intrajugular) Adrenomedullin transfection
Takahashi 2004 [19] Japan Dog (beagle) 14 28 EPC Dog Peripheral blood Autologous 1,000,000 IV (intrajugular)  
Zhao 2005a [33] Canada Rat (Fischer) 21 14 EPC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 1,000,000 IV (intrajugular) eNOS
Zhao 2005b [33] Canada Rat (Fischer) 3 21 EPC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 1,500,000 IV (intrajugular)  
Kanki-Horimoto 2006 [34] Japan Rat (Sprague Dawley) 7 14 MSC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 1,000,000 IV (intrajugular)  
Baber 2007 [35] USA Rat (Sprague Dawley) 14 35 MSC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 3,000,000 Intratracheal  
Spees 2008 USA Rat (Sprague Dawley) 21 21 BM-MNC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 5,000,000 IV (tail vein)  
Yip 2008a [36] Taiwan Rat (Sprague Dawley) 7 83 EPC Rat Bone marrow Autologous 1,200,000 IV (tail vein)  
Yip 2008b [36] Taiwan Rat (Sprague Dawley) 7 21 EPC Rat Bone marrow Autologous 1,200,000 IV (tail vein)  
Sun 2009a [37] Taiwan Rat (Sprague Dawley) 3 42 EPC Rat Bone marrow Autologous 2,000,000 IV (tail vein) Cilostazol pretreatment
Sun 2009b [37] Taiwan Rat (Sprague Dawley) 3 42 EPC Rat Bone marrow Autologous 2,000,000 IV (tail vein)  
Umar 2009 [38] Netherlands Rat (Wistar) 14 14 MSC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 1,000,000 IV (intrajugular)  
Ormiston 2010 [22] Canada Rat (nude athymic) 3 21 EPC (early and late) Human Peripheral blood Xenogenic 1,500,000 IV (intrajugular)  
Takemiya 2010 [39] Japan Rat (Lewis) 14 28 MSC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 500,000 IV (tail vein) PCS transfection
Angelini 2011 [40] Italy Rat (Sprague Dawley) 28 7 MSC Rat Adipose Allogeneic 4,000,000 IV (tail vein)  
Mirsky 2011a [41] USA Rat (nude athymic) 35 10 and 15 EPC Human Peripheral blood Xenogenic 1,500,000 IV (tail vein)  
Mirsky 2011b [41] USA Rat (nude athymic) 35 10 and 15 EPC Human Peripheral blood Xenogenic 1,500,000 IV (tail vein)  
Jiang 2012 [42] China Rat (Sprague Dawley) 3 18 MSC   Bone marrow Allogeneic 4,000,000 IV (tail vein)  
Kim 2012 [43] Korea Rat (Sprague Dawley) 7 28 BM-MNC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 20,000,000 IV (tail vein)  
Luan 2012 [30] China Rat (Sprague Dawley) 21 14 MSC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 100,000 IV (right femoral vein)  
Luan 2012 [20] China Dog (Mongrel) 14 56 BM-MNC Dog Bone marrow Allogeneic 1,300,000 Intratracheal  
Sun 2012 [44] Taiwan Rat (Sprague Dawley) 3 35 EPC Rat Bone marrow Autologous 2,000,000 IV (tail vein)  
Xie 2012 [45] China Rat (Sprague Dawley) 7 14 MSC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 1,000,000 IV (right femoral vein)  
Yen 2013 [46] Taiwan Rat (Sprague Dawley) 21 69 EPC Rat Bone marrow Autologous 2,000,000 IV (penile vein)  
Zhou 2013a [47] USA Rat (Fischer) 3 25 EPC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 1,500,000 IV (intrajugular) COX1-PCS transfection
Zhou 2013b [47] USA Rat (Fischer) 21 28 EPC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 1,500,000 IV (intrajugular) COX1-PCS transfection
Chen 2014 [48] China Rat (Sprague Dawley) 21 14 MSC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 1,000,000 IV (tail vein)  
Eguchi 2014 [49] Japan Rat (Wistar) 7 21 MSC Rat Adipose Allogeneic 7,000,000 IV (tail vein)  
Guo 2014 [50] China Rat (Sprague Dawley) 21 21 MSC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 5,000,000 IV (intrajugular)  
Luan 2014 [51] China Rat (Sprague Dawley) 7 173 MSC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 10,000,000 IV (sublingual vein)  
Somanna 2014 [52] USA Rat (Sprague Dawley) 14 14 MSC Rat Adipose Allogeneic 3,000,000 Intratracheal COX1 transfection
Ikutomi 2015a [53] Japan Rat (Fischer) 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 19 EPC-early Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 1 × 106 per injection (total 6×) IV (tail vein)  
Ikutomi 2015b [53] Japan Rat (Fischer) 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 19 EPC-late Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 1 × 106 per injection (total 6×) IV (tail vein)  
Ikutomi 2015c [53] Japan Rat (Fischer) 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 19 EPC-very late Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 1 × 106 per injection (total 6×) IV (tail vein)  
Kang 2015 [54] Korea Rat (Lewis) 14 14 MSC Human Umbilical cord blood Allogeneic 250,000 IV (tail vein) S1p priming
Lee 2015 [55] Korea Rat (Sprague Dawley) 7 7 MSC Human Umbilical cord blood Xenogenic 3,000,000 IV (intrajugular)  
Liang 2015 [56] China Rat (Sprague Dawley) 7 or 14 7 MSC Rat Adipose Allogeneic 1,000,000 IV (intrajugular)  
Liu 2015 [57] China Rat (Sprague Dawley) 5 16 MSC Human Umbilical cord blood Xenogenic 1,000,000 IV (tail vein)  
Luo 2015 [58] China Rat (Sprague Dawley) 14 7 MSC Rat Adipose Allogeneic 1,000,000 IV (intrajugular)  
Pan 2015 [59] China Rat (Sprague Dawley) 7, 14, 21 7,14,21 EPC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 1,000,000 IV (tail vein) shRNA-CD40 transfection
Chen 2016a [60] China Rat (Wistar) 14 21 MSC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 1,000,000 IV (tail vein) eNOS/F92A-Cav1
Chen 2016b [60] China Rat (Wistar) 14 21 MSC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 1,000,000 IV (tail vein) F92A-Cav1
Chen 2016c [60] China Rat (Wistar) 14 21 MSC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 1,000,000 IV (tail vein) eNOS
Huang 2016 [61] Taiwan Rat (Sprague Dawley) 0 or 14 14 iPSC Mouse Not reported Xenogenic 2,000,000 IV (tail vein) None (compared to conditioned media)
Kim 2016 [62] Korea Rat (Sprague Dawley) 7 7 and 21 MSC Human Umbilical cord blood Xenogenic 3 × 106/ml/cm2 IV (intrajugular)  
Lim 2016 [63] Korea Rat (Lewis) 14 14 MSC Human Bone marrow Xenogenic 250,000 IV (tail vein) C1P (ceramide-1 phosphate) priming
Rathinasabapathy 2016 [64] USA Rat (Sprague Dawley) 14 14 MSC Rat Adipose Allogeneic 1,000,000 IP  
Varshney 2016 [65] USA Rat (Sprague Dawley) 3 18 MSC mouse Not reported Xenogenic 3,500,000 IV (intrajugular) GFP-SKL (secreted Klotho) transfection
Ahmed 2017 [66] Egypt Rat (Wistar) 14 14 EPC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 1,000,000 IV (no specific site indicated) pinocembrin preconditioning
Cheng 2017 [67] China Rat (Lewis) 21 21 MSC Rat Bone marrow Allogeneic 3,000,000 IV (tail vein) Let7a transfection
de Mendonca 2017 [68] Brazil Rat (Wistar) 14 21 MSC Rat Adipose Allogeneic 100,000 IV (intrajugular)  
Lee 2017 [69] Korea Rat (Sprague Dawley) 1, 7 14 and 28 MSC Human Umbilical cord blood Xenogenic 3,000,000, 1,000,000, 300,000 IV (intrajugular) (multiple doses and timing)  
Middleton 2017 [70] USA Rat (Sprague Dawley) 14 21 CDC Rat Heart Allogeneic 2,000,000 IV (intrajugular)  
Luo 2018 [71] China Rat (Sprague Dawley) 14 21 MSC Rat Adipose Allogeneic 1,000,000 IV (intrajugular) Adiponectin transfection
  1. Letters following the author and year (ex. Chen 2016a) indicate that more than one experiment or treatment was conducted in the same publication