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Table 1 Substrates, functions, and pathological evidence of F-box proteins involved in EMT during cancer progression

From: Emerging role of F-box proteins in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem cells in human cancers

F-box protein Substrates Cancer types Functions References
β-TrCP Snail, β-catenin, Twist Breast cancer, lung cancer, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and cervical cancer Oncoprotein or tumor suppressor; inhibits EMT, migration, and invasion [63, 64, 71,72,73,74,75]
FBXW7 Snail, MMPs, mTOR, RhoA Lung cancer, gastric cancer, renal cell carcinoma, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, and cholangiocarcinoma Tumor suppressor; inhibits EMT, invasion, and metastasis; and increases sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs [39,40,41,42,43,44, 50,51,52, 136]
SKP2 p27, Twist Melanoma, breast cancer, osteosarcoma, and prostate cancer Oncoprotein; promotes cell growth, EMT, and invasion; and increases drug resistance [84, 86, 87, 139]
FBXL5 Snail1 Gastric cancer and cervical cancer Tumor suppressor; inhibits EMT and metastasis [92, 94, 95]
FBXL14 Snail1, Slug, Twist, Sip1 Head and neck cancer Tumor suppressor; inhibits EMT and metastasis [97, 98]
FBXO2 None Gastric cancer Oncoprotein; promotes proliferation, metastasis, and EMT [127]
FBXO11 Snail Breast cancer and gastric cancer Tumor suppressor; inhibits cell growth, EMT, and metastasis; induces apoptosis [102,103,104]
FBXO22 Snail Breast cancer Tumor suppressor; inhibits EMT and metastasis [131]
FBXO31 Snail1 Gastric cancer Tumor suppressor; inhibits cell growth and EMT [135]
FBXO32 MyoD, CtBP1 Urothelial carcinoma and breast cancer Induces apoptosis and inhibits EMT in urothelial carcinoma; promotes EMT and metastasis in breast cancer cells [113, 114]
FBXO45 Snail1, Snail2, Twist1, ZEB1, ZEB2 Prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, cervical cancer, and pancreatic cancer Tumor suppressor or oncoprotein; inhibits EMT [122,123,124]