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Table 1 Hypoxia or serum deprivation may exert destructive effects or protective effects on MSCs according to the specific conditions

From: Modulating autophagy in mesenchymal stem cells effectively protects against hypoxia- or ischemia-induced injury

Animal donor MSC source Treatment Toxin Autophagy Mechanism Effect Reference
Mouse Bone marrow N/A 0% O2 (hypoxia or H/R) ERK1/2 pathway↑ Promote autophagic responses [71]
Mouse Bone marrow N/A 1% O2 (H/SD) AMPK/mTOR signal pathway↑ Increase the apoptosis of MSCs [72]
Rats Bone marrow and adipose N/A NaN3 and 2DG VEGF↑; angiopoietin-1↓; extracellular matrix molecules↓ Enhance cell death [73]
Human Bone marrow Serum deprivation 0.1% O2 and total glucose depletion mTOR↓; glycolysis↑ Maintain viability and ATP levels [74]
Mouse Bone marrow 1% O2 N/A Apelin/APJ/autophagy signaling pathway↑ Enhance MSC proliferation [75]
Rat Bone marrow 5% O2 Lipopolysaccharide HIF-1α↑ Improve cell activity and decrease apoptosis rate of MSCs [76]
Mouse Bone marrow 0.5% O2 H/SD AMP-activated protein kinase↑; mTOR↓ Protect MSCs from H/SD-induced injury [77]
Human Bone marrow 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% O2 N/A Mitochondrial activity↓ Decrease cellular size and increase cellular complexity [78]
Rat Bone marrow ATV H/SD AMPK/mTOR pathway↑ Enhance MSC survival [79]
Rat Bone marrow Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) H/SD AMPK/mTOR pathway↑; autophagy↑ Attenuate apoptosis of MSCs [80]
Rat Bone marrow Overexpression of HIF-1α OGD Autophagy↑; PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway↓ Improve cell activity and reduce apoptosis rate of MSCs [82]
Rat Bone marrow Sitagliptin H/SD Bcl-2/Beclin-1 pathway↑ Attenuate apoptosis of MSCs [83]