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Table 2 Autophagy may regulate MSC activities in vivo and repair I/R-induced injury in different tissues

From: Modulating autophagy in mesenchymal stem cells effectively protects against hypoxia- or ischemia-induced injury

Tissue MSC source Dose Route Animal Treatment Time point Autophagy Effect Reference
Heart Bone marrow 1 × 106 Injection into the peri-infarcted areas Mouse 1% O2 Transplantation immediately after MI Alleviate the apoptotic rate of cardiomyocytes; preserve heart function; eliminate fibrosis [21]
Bone marrow Exosomes derived from 5 × 106 cells Injection into the anterior and lateral part of the visibly injured region Rat N/A Transplantation prior to reperfusion Decrease the apoptosis rate of MSCs; reduce the myocardial infarct size [91]
N/A 2 × 105 Injection into the peri-infarcted areas Mouse N/A Transplantation at 30 min after MI Reduce infarct size; improve cardiac function [92]
N/A 5 μg MSC-derived exosomes Injection into the peri-infarcted areas Mouse N/A Transplantation at 30 min after MI Reduce infarct size; improve cardiac function [92]
Bone marrow 1 × 106 Intramyocardial injection Rat Overexpression of Let-7b in MSCs Transplantation immediately after MI Improve left ventricular function and microvessel density [93]
Brain Bone marrow 5 × 106 Retro-orbital injection Rat N/A Transplantation after 1 h and 24 h reperfusion Promote neurite growth and regeneration [104]
Bone marrow 2 × 106 Intravenous injection Rat N/A Transplantation at 30 min after TBI Promote histological and functional recovery in the brain [105]
Adipose 100 μg/kg/day of MSC-derived exosomes Injection into the lateral cerebral ventricle Rat Overexpression of PEDF Transplantation at 3 days prior to MCAO surgery Inhibit neuronal apoptosis; ameliorate cerebral I/R injury [108]
Bone marrow 1 × 106 Injection into the striatum of the ipsilateral hemisphere Rat Overexpression of HIF-1α Transplantation at 4 h after MCAO Reduce brain infarct volume; improve neurobehavioral outcome [103]
Bone marrow 5 × 106 Injection into the superficial dorsal veins Rat Overexpression of HO-1 Immediate transplantation following the surgery Exert protective effects on liver grafts following reduced-size liver transplantation [116]
  Bone marrow 1 × 106 Portal vein Rat Overexpression of heat shock protein (HSP) Transplantation at 60 min after reperfusion Decrease the levels of serum aminotransferases and Suzuki scores; improve cell survival and histopathology [117]
Retina Bone marrow 5 × 104 Intravitreal transplantation Rat N/A Transplantation at 24 h postischemia Eliminate ischemic damage in the retina [120]
  Bone marrow 4 × 106 Injection into the ischemic muscle along the femoral artery Rat 5% O2 Transplantation immediately after surgery Upregulate the pro-angiogenic effects and therapeutic effects of engrafted MSCs in the lower limb of ischemic diabetic rats [76]
  Adipose 1.0 × 107 Injection into the left adductor muscle Mouse Apelin Transplantation immediately after surgery and lasting for consecutive 14 days Enhance the survival of MSCs in ischemic hindlimbs; restore hindlimb blood perfusion; repair limb functions in peripheral arterial disease [122]