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Table 1 hESCs and hiPSCs strategies for human endothelial cell derivation

From: Strategies for derivation of endothelial lineages from human stem cells

Study Cell line Induction system Purification method Culture milieu Induction Period (days) Efficiency Positive control In vitro analysis In vivo analysis
Medium Growth factors Other special factors EC markers analyzed Application/functional assessment
Levenberg et al. [23] hESCs:H9 3D EB formation PECAM1 (FACS) EGM-2 EGM-2 supplements No 13–15 2% of total cell population HUVEC Genes analysis for PECAM1, VE-cad, CD34, Flk-1, Tie-2 Protein analysis for PECAM1, VE-cad, vWF In vitro Matrigel sprouting assay LDL uptake assay Transplantation into SCID mice
Goldman et al. [24] hESCs:H9 3D EB formation CD144/KDR (FACS) knockout DMEM IL-3, IL-6, G-CSF, Flt-3, SCF BMP4 12 More than 12% of total cell population HUVEC Genes analysis for CD144, KDR Protein analysis for CD144, KDR, CD31, CD34, vWF In vitro Matrigel sprouting assay Migration assay in response to a VEGF gradient No
Kim et al. [25] hESCs: CHA-3; 3D EB formation No DMEM+F12 (50% respectively) No No 15 No Genes analysis for PECAM1, Flk-1, Tie-2 Protein analysis for PECAM1, vWF In vitro Matrigel sprouting assay LDL uptake assay No
Figueiredo et al. [34] hESCs:H1 2D cells-co-culture system No 훼-MEM No No 9 (CD31+) 18.45% of total cell population Protein analysis for CD31, KDR, CD144 Vascular tube-like structure formation No
Lippmann et al. [35] hESCs:H9 2D cells-co-culture system No 7 days unconditioned medium, 6 days EC medium 13 (PECAM-1+) 63% of total cell population No Genes analysis for PECAM1, vWF, VE-cad Protein analysis for PECAM1, vWF, VE-cad LDL uptake assay In vitro Matrigel sprouting assay No
Orlova et al. [37] hESCs: HES3; HES4 2D growth factor-supplemented differentiation system CD31 (MACS) mTeSR1 culture medium VEGF-A; BMP4; Activin A CHIR; SB431542 10 (VE-Cad/CD31+) 19.9% of total cell population No Protein analysis for CD31, VE-cad, vWF Tube formation assay Zebrafish xenotransplantation assay
Kane et al. [40] hESCs:SA461; SA121 2D growth factor-supplemented differentiation system No Large vessel endothelial growth media Hydrocortisone, EGF, bFGF, heparin 14 (VE-Cad/CD31+) 57.04% of total cell population HUVEC HSVEC HMVEC Gene analysis for CD31, Flt-1, KDR, VE-cad, CD34 Protein analysis for CD31, VE-cad; NO production assay Tube formation assay Transplantation into immunocompromised mice
Elcheva, I. et al. [41] hESCs:H1; H9 2D genetic manipulation system No mTeSR1 culture medium 5 Not clear No Protein analysis for CD31, VE-cad, vWF, CD34, CD73, KDR LDL uptake assay Tube formation assay No
Lindgren et al. [42] hESCs Genetic manipulation combined with EB formation No DMEM+F12 VEGF; bFGF2 7 Not clear No Gene analysis for CD31, KDR, VE-cad Protein analysis for CD31, KDR, VE-cad In vitro Matrigel sprouting assay; No
Adams et al. [31] hiPSCs 3D EB formation VE-cad (MACS) Fetal calf serum 10 About 18% of total cell population No Gene analysis for CD31, KDR, VE-cad Protein analysis for CD31, KDR, VE-cad, eNOS LDL uptake assay In vitro Matrigel sprouting assay No
Lin et al. [43] hiPSCs 3D EB formation with addition of growth factors KDR (FACS) EGM2 VEGF bFGF 20 About 20% of total cell population No Genes analysis for KDR, CD31 Protein analysis for CD31, VE-cad LDL uptake assay In vitro Matrigel sprouting assay Matrigel plug assay in NOD/SCID mice
Choi et al. [50] hiPSCs 2D cell-co-culture system CD34 (MACS) with CD31 (FCAS) 훼-MEM 8 2.8%~ 6.0% of total cell population No Protein analysis for CD31, KDR, CD49d, CD105, CD144, CD146, vWF, VE-cad Tube formation assay No