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Table 2 Summary of in vitro studies on tenogenic differentiation by growth factors in horse

From: Strategies of tenogenic differentiation of equine stem cells for tendon repair: current status and challenges

Growth factor Concentration Other modification Cell source Outcome Reference
TGFB3 20 ng/ml 2D and 3D cultures Tenocytes and ESCs Unlike tenocytes, ESCs upregulated tendon markers in 2D culture and showed synergic effect with TGFB3 and 3D; no cartilage or bone tissue deposition [41, 62]
TGFB3 20 ng/ml 3D collagen gel IPS Reduced expression of tendon-related marker of iPSCs in 3D versus 2D culture [5]
BMP12 50 ng/ml   AF-MSCs Elongated and spindle-shaped; expressed TNMD and DCN genes [63]
BMP12 50 ng/ml   BM-MSCs Elongated tenocyte-like phenotype; expressed TNMD and DCN genes [64]
BMP12 50 ng/ml   UCB-MSCs Expression of SCX, MKX, TNM, COL1, and DCN by RT-PCR; expression of protein TNM, DCN [65]
TGFB3, EGF2, bFGF2, IGF-1 10 ng/ml LLLT PB-MSCs Supplementation with bFGF2 and TGFB3 upregulated expression of EGR1, and DCN; increased TNC with LLLT [66]
PDGF-BB, IGF-1, bFGF, SDF-1 α, and GDF-5 5, 50, 5, 50 and 100 ng/ml respectively Scaffold Tenocytes Effect of pairing IGF-1, GDF-5 rescue the tenocyte phenotype and gene expression profiles and driving proliferation [67]
TGFB1, IGF-1, insulin 10 ng/ml and 50 ng/ml 2D and 3D cultures Tenocyte Pro-tenogenic effect with 3D culture system treated with GFs [40]
GDF5, GDF6 and GDF7 10 ng/ml and 100 ng/ml Strain stimulation; oxygen tension AD-MSC Expression of tendon-relevant genes were higher with an oxygen tension of 21%, tensile stimulation and supplementation with GDF5 or GDF 7 [68]
IGF-1 100 ng/ml Acellular tendon matrix BM-MSCs and TDSCs COL and GAG syntheses were higher in TDSCs; no significant difference was observed in the expression of COL1, COL3, and COMP between BM-MSCs and TDSCs [69]
TGFB3 2.5 ng/ml Treated with Gremlin and SOST; nanofiber scaffold ASCs Increased tenogenic markers; decreased osteo-chondrogenic markers treated with T/G/S on nanofiber scaffold Our unpublished data
  1. Abbreviations: TGF-β transforming growth factor, BMP bone morphogenetic protein, EGF epidermal growth factor, bFGF fibroblast growth factor, IGF-1 insulin-like growth factor, PDGF-BB platelet-derived growth factor-BB, GDF growth and differentiation factor, SDF-1 stromal cell-derived factor-1, EGR1 early growth response protein 1, DCN decorin, COL3A1 collagen type III, COL1A1 collagen type I, TNMD tenomodulin, T/G/S TGFB3/Gremlin/SOST, LLLT low-level laser therapy