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Table 1 A selective overview of studies reporting exosomes in diseases

From: Recent advances of exosomes in immune-mediated eye diseases

Disease involved Cellular origin of exosomes Exosomal cargo Biological function and (or) action mechanism References
Colitis Mouse Tregs Let-7d Suppress Th1 cell proliferation and secretion of IFN-γ [36]
Cancer Cancer cell lines PD-L1 Suppress T cell activity in the draining lymph node by presenting PD-L1 [41]
Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs miR-182 Modulate macrophage polarization via targeting the TLR4/NF-B/PI3K/Akt signaling cascades [43]
SS Salivary gland epithelial cells Autoantigenic Ro/SS-A, La/SS-B and Sm RNPs Present intracellular autoantigens to immune system to induce immune response or tolerance [51]
SS EVB-infected B lymphocytes miR-BART13-3p (exogenous) Target AQP5 and STIM1, impact activation of a critical Ca2+ entry, impair salivary gland function [52]
kidney allotransplantation Tregs generated by dendritic cells transfected with adenovirus-encoding dnIKK2 in vitro Specifc miRNAs and iNOS enzyme Inhibit T cell alloreactivity, promote Tregs generation, prolong kidney allograft survival [53]
Islet transplantation Human bone marrow-derived MSCs transfected by overexpressed siFas and anti-miR-375 in plasmid siFas and anti-miR-375 (exogenous) Silence Fas and miR-375 of human islets, inhibit early apoptosis of transplanted human islets [54]
Corneal implant In-growing pig corneal epithelium cells   Generate matrix components, promote corneal regeneration [55]
Corneal wound healing Mouse corneal epithelial cells Thrombospondin-2, latent-transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 1, C-X-C motif chemokine 5, and C-C motif chemokine 2 Trigger keratocyte proliferation, convert keratocyte transformation into myofibroblasts, angiogenesis [56]
Corneal wound healing Normal human cornea limbal keratocytes Small RNAs Enhance proliferation and wound healing rates of limbal epithelial cells through activating Akt signaling [57]
Corneal wound healing Human corneal MSCs   Accelerate corneal epithelial wound healing [58]
Noninfectious uveitis ARPE-19   Inhibit T-cell proliferation, regulate human monocyte phenotype and viability [59]
Autoimmune uveoretinitis Human bone marrow-derived MSCs   Prevent the onset of EAU by suppressing Th1/Th17 development and inhibiting T cell proliferation [60]
Autoimmune uveitis Human umbilical cord-derived MSCs   Exert therapeutic effects on EAU by inhibiting inflammatory cell migration [61]
AMD ARPE-19 Complement protein C3 Targets for complement factor H, interact with the complement pathways [62]
Laser-induced choroidal neovascularization Mouse retinal astroglial cells Endostatin, KC/Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1, matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -9, nephroblastoma-overexpressed, pigment endothelium-derived factor, proliferin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 Suppress retinal vascular leakage, reduce choroidal neovascularization [63]
Atherosclerosis Mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs miR-let7 family Decrease macrophage infiltration via miR-let7/IGF2BP1/PTEN pathway,
regulate macrophage polarization via miR-let7/HMGA2/NF-kB pathway
Cancer Human bone marrow-derived MSCs miR-100 Decrease the expression and secretion of VEGF via modulating the mTOR/HIF-1α signaling [65]
Hyperglycemia-induced retinal inflammation Human umbilical cord-derived MSCs miR-126 Suppress the hyperglycemia-induced inflammatory response via downregulating HMGB1 signaling [66]
  1. This list is limited to studies presented in this review. Tregs regulatory T cells, PD-L1 programmed death-ligand 1, MSCs mesenchymal stem cell, SS Sjögren’s syndrome, RNPs ribonucleoproteins, EVB Epstein-Barr virus, AQP5 aquaporin 5, STIMI stromal interacting molecule 1, iNOS inducible nitric oxide synthase, siFas siRNA against Fas receptor, ARPE-19 human retinal pigment epithelium cell line, EAU experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis, AMD age-related macular degeneration, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor, HMGB1 high-mobility group box 1