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Table 1 Overview of MSC-EV-related studies conducted in animal models and in vitro for various diseases

From: Enhancement of therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles

MSC origin Model In vivo/in vitro potency Associated molecule Ref.
H - AD Angiogenesis Increased angiogenic capacity of endothelial cells miR-125a [122]
H - AD Prostate cancer Decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis miR-145 [65]
H - BM Optic nerve crush Promoted regeneration of retinal ganglion cells axons Argonaute-2 [34]
H - BM Leukocyte activation (in vitro) Decreased inflammatory cytokines in leukocytes COX2/PGE2 [35]
H - BM Nasopharyngeal carcinoma Promoted nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell growth FGF19 [38]
H - BM Breast cancer Inhibited endothelial cell migration and tube formation using supernatants from EV-treated breast cancer cells miR-100 [123]
H - BM Intervertebral disc degeneration Inhibited nucleus pulposus cell apoptosis miR-21 [54]
H - BM Cardiomyocyte contractility (in vitro) Increased contractility miR-21p [124]
H - BM Gastric cancer Increased gastric cancer cell migration and invasion miR-221 [69]
H - BM Metastatic breast cancer Induced dormancy miR-23b [125]
H - BM Acute myeloid leukemia Different patterns of miRNA expression in EVs miR-26a-5p, miR-101-3p, miR-23b-5p, miR-339-3p, miR-425-5p [126]
H - BM Skeletal muscle regeneration Increased myogenesis and angiogenesis miR-494 [127]
H - BM Acute kidney injury Recovery from renal injury mRNA (CCNB1, CDK8, CDC6) [128]
H - DP Ischemia Increased angiogenesis Jagged1 [31]
H - EMB Osteochondral defect Increased cartilage repair CD73 [33]
H - END Cardiac infarction (in vitro) Anti-apoptotic/anti-angiogenic effects and cardioprotection miR-21 [59]
Human glioma Glioma stem cell activation (in vitro) Increased glioma stem cell tumorigenicity miR-1587 [129]
H - PL Hindlimb ischemia Increased proangiogenic effect VEGF/miR-126 [92]
H - UC Myocardial infarction Increased endothelial cell migration and tube formation PDGF-D [32]
H - UC Cisplatin-injured renal tubular epithelial cells (in vitro) Protected against cisplatin-induced injury in renal tubular epithelial cells 14-3-3ζ [37]
H - UC Hypoxia-ischemia (in vitro) Anti-apoptotic effect miR-let-7e, miR-let-7a [130]
H - UC Hepatitis (in vitro) Protected against infection by hepatitis C virus miR-let-7f, miR-145, miR-199a, miR-221 [66]
H - UC Sepsis Increased survival in mice and decreased inflammatory cytokines in macrophages miR-146a [85]
H - UC Skin defect Reduced scar formation and myofibroblast development miR-21, miR-23a, miR-125b, miR-145 [56]
H - UC Skin defect in diabetes Promoted healing of cutaneous wounds miR-let-7b [84]
M - BM Acute kidney injury Recovery from renal injury CCR2 [36]
M - BM Kidney transplantation Increased graft survival miR-146a [131]
M - BM Systemic sclerosis Increased osteogenesis and decreased adipogenesis miR-151-5p [132]
M - BM Breast cancer Decreased angiogenesis miR-16 [133]
M - BM Hematopoietic cell activation (in vitro) Decreased autophagy and rejuvenating effects depending on age miR-17, miR-34a (negative effect), RNA (positive effect) [134]
M - BM Alzheimer’s disease Prevented cognitive decline miR-21 [55]
M - BM Myocardial infarction Promoted cardiac protection miR-210 [91]
M - BM Hindlimb ischemia Restored blood perfusion and promoted angiogenesis miR-210-3p, VEGF [135]
M - BM Cardiac infarction Decreased cardiac fibrosis miR-22 [136]
M - BM Sepsis Recovered cardiac function miR-223 [137]
M - BM Gastric cancer Increased proliferation and migration UBR2 [39]
M - EMB Angiogenesis Increased angiogenic capacity of endothelial cells miR-30b [138]
R - AD Erectile dysfunction in diabetes Restored erectile function miR-126, miR-130a, miR-132, miR-let7b, miR-let7c [139]
R - BM Renal fibrosis (in vitro) TGF-β induced epithelial mesenchymal transition in HK2 cells miR-294, miR-133b-3p [140]
R - BM Stroke Neuroprotective effects miR-133b [141]
R - BM Middle cerebral artery occlusion Promoted neurite outgrowth miR-133b [142]
R - BM Colitis Decreased colitis-associated fibrosis miR-200b [143]
R - BM Ischemic cardiomyopathy (in vitro) Reduced oxidative injury miR-21 [58]
  1. Abbreviations: MSC mesenchymal stem cell, EVs extracellular vesicles, H human, M mouse, R rat, BM bone marrow, AD adipose tissue, DP dental pulp, EMB embryonic, END endometrial, PL placental, UC umbilical cord, COX2 cyclooxygenase 2, PGE2 prostaglandin E2, FGF19 fibroblast growth factor 19, CCNB1 cyclin B1, CDK8 cyclin-dependent kinase 8, CDC6 cell division cycle 6, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor, PDGF-D platelet-derived growth factor-D, CCR2 C–C chemokine receptor type 2, UBR2 ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 2, TGF tumor growth factor