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Fig. 2 | Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Fig. 2

From: Glucose regulates tissue-specific chondro-osteogenic differentiation of human cartilage endplate stem cells via O-GlcNAcylation of Sox9 and Runx2

Fig. 2

High glucose inhibited chondrogenesis while promoting osteogenesis and protein O-GlcNAcylation. CESCs were induced under low-glucose (LG, 1 mM), normal-glucose (NG, 5 mM), and high-glucose (HG, 25 mM) conditions in basic medium (c), chondrogenic induction medium (CIM) (a, e, i), or osteogenic induction medium (OIM) (b, g, j), respectively, for 21 days. a Expression of chondrogenic genes (Sox9, COL2, and AGN) was assessed by Q-PCR of mRNA from CESCs induced in CIM. b Expression of osteogenic genes (Runx2, COL1, and ALP) was assessed by Q-PCR of mRNA from CESCs induced in OIM. c, d Western blot (c) and analysis (d) of the protein O-GlcNAcylation (RL2) in samples treated under LG, NG, and HG conditions. The protein contents were normalized according to GAPDH level. e, f Western blot (e) and analysis (f) of the expressions of Sox9, COL2, and AGN in samples treated under LG, NG, and HG conditions. The protein contents were normalized to GAPDH level. g, h Western blot (g) and analysis (h) of the expressions of Runx2, COL1, and ALP in samples treated under LG, NG, and HG conditions. The protein contents were normalized according to GAPDH level. i, j Macrographs of Alcian blue (AB) staining and Alizarin red (AR) staining and analysis of CESCs treated under LG, NG, and HG conditions. Data represent the mean ± SD (n = 3 independent experiments, one-way ANOVA). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001

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