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Table 1 Exosomes and their cargos in arthritis

From: Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes: a new therapeutic approach to osteoarthritis?

Disease Composition of exosome cargo Model Sample (n) Function(s) Ref
RA, OS Fn (α, β chain), FGB, fibrinogen D fragment, Spα, α2M, IgG1 γ-chain C region, Fn/IgG complex Human 15 Induction of T cells, enhancement of T cell immunity, Inhibition of TNF, antigen presentation [65]
RA Integrin CD41 Human Not mentioned [66]
RA LYVE-1 ↑ Human 60 Lymphangiogenesis [67]
AA AA tended to be higher in patients with higher disease activity
RA TNF Human 10 Induction of apoptosis resistance in CD4+ T cell via sustaining the activities of both Akt and NF-κB, and blocking some effects of caspase activation [62]
Collagen-induced arthritis CD71, HSP70 Mice 2 Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects [68]
RA MHC I and II molecules, CD11c, CD86, CD178 Mice Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects [69]
Collagen-induced arthritis HSC70, CD81, CD80/86, MHC I, and MHC II Mice 2 Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects [70]
RA, PsA Rank in PA↓, in RA↑ Human 22 Modulation of the osteoclastogenesis [71]
OA hsa-miR-4717-5p ↑ Human 6 Modulation of the RGS2 [72]
RA miR-17 ↑ Human 25 Regulation of Treg differentiation by inhibiting TGFBR II expression and disrupting the homeostasis of Tregs. [73]
RA miR-6089 ↓ Human 76 Regulation of IL-6, IL-29, and TNF-α production by targeting LPS/TLR4-mediated inflammatory response [74]
RA miR-548a-3p ↓ Human 76 Inhibition of proliferation and activation by regulating the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway [75]
OS Different types Human 41 Estrogen responsive in female osteoarthritis and targeting TLR signaling pathways [60]
RA miR-221-3p ↑ Mice 30 Inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by suppressing the expression of Dkk2 and regulation of signaling pathways at erosion sites that affect bone loss and compensatory bone formation [76]
OA PCGEM1 ↑ Human 42 Triggering proliferation of osteoarthritic synoviocytes and progression of OA [77]
RA Hotair↑ Human 28 Activation of MMP-2 and MMP-13 in osteoclasts and RA synoviocytes and leading to migration of active macrophage [78]
PR antisense↓
OA Not mentioned Human 10 Stimulation of M1 macrophages to release IL-1β/ IL-16, CCL20/CCL15/CXCL1) and MMP12/MMP7 [59]
  1. AA amyloid A, anti-NOS2A anti-nitric oxide synthase 2 A, CCL20 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20, CD41 cluster of differentiation 41, Dkk2 Dickkopf-related protein 2, Fn fibrin, Hotair HOX Transcript Antisense RNA, HOXA3 Homeobox A3, HSC70 heat shock cognate protein 70, HSP70 heat shock protein70, IL-6 interleukin 6, LPS/TLR4 lipopolysaccharide/Toll-like receptor 4, LUST Luca-15-specific transcript, LYVE-1 lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1, mascRNA MALAT1-associated small cytoplasmic RNA, Malat1 metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1, MEG9 maternally expressed 9, MMP-2 matrix metallopeptidases-2, MHC I and II major histocompatibility complex I and II, NEAT1 nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1, NF-κB nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, OA osteoarthritis, PRINS psoriasis-susceptibility related RNA gene induced by stress, PsA psoriatic arthritis, RA rheumatoid arthritis, Rank receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B, RGS2 regulator Of G protein signaling 2, SNHG4 small nucleolar RNA host gene 4, Spα surface plasmon alfa, TNF tumor necrosis factor, TUG1 taurine upregulated gene 1