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Table 2 Exosome derived from various types of stem cells and arthritis

From: Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes: a new therapeutic approach to osteoarthritis?

Cargo Composition of cargo Type of arthritis Type of stem cell Model Function Ref
Protein CD9, CD63, and TSG101 OA SMMSC and iMSCs Mice Induce the chondrocyte migration and proliferation [38]
Non-coding RNA miR-92a-3p OA MSCs Mice Modulate the development of cartilage and homeostasis via direct targeting and inhibition of WNT5A [37]
miR-320c OA hBMSCs In vitro Downregulate the MMP13 and up regulate SOX9)expression [105]
miR-140-5p OA SMSCs Rat Improve the proliferation and migration of articular chondrocytes and prevent OA [90]
miR-150-5p RA MSCs Mice Decrease joint destruction though inhibiting the synoviocyte hyperplasia and angiogenesis [106]
lncRNA-KLF3-AS1 OA MSCs Rat Inhibit IL-1β-induced apoptosis of chondrocytes [107]
Not mentioned Not mentioned OA MSCs Rabbit Inhibit the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK and induces the phosphorylation of Akt [108]
Not mentioned Not mentioned OA MSCs Rat Improve the synthesis of s-GAGOmpedes by IL-1β, and inhibits the IL-1β-induced nitric oxide and MMP13 production [109]
Not mentioned Not mentioned OA AD-MSCs In vitro Decrease the generation of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-6, PGE2, and NO and improve the generation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 [110]
Not mentioned Not mentioned OA AD-MSCs In vitro Downregulate the SABG activity and. Reduce the generation of inflammatory mediators. [111]
Not mentioned Not mentioned OA BM-MSCs Mice Induce the type II collagen, and aggrecan expression, inhibit the expression of the MMP-13, ADAMTS5, and iNOS [2]
Not mentioned Not mentioned OA ESC-MSCs Mice Augment the synthesis of collagen type II and reduce the expression of ADAMTS5 in the presence of IL-1β [36]
Not mentioned Not mentioned Collagen-Induced Arthritis MSCs Mice Anti-inflammatory role on T and B-lymphocytes [112]
Not mentioned Not mentioned Antigen-induced synovitis MSCs Pig Reduce the synovial lymphocytes together with a down modulation of TNF-α transcripts [113]
  1. ADAMTS5 A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5, AD-MSCs adipose-derived MSCs, ESCs embryonic stem cells, ERK extracellular-signal-regulated kinase, KLF3-AS1 KLF3 antisense RNA 1, IL-1β Interleukin 1 beta, iMSCs iPSC-derived MSCs, iNOS inducible nitric oxide synthase, hBM-MSCs human bone marrow-MSCs, MMP13 matrix metalloproteinase-13, MSCs mesenchymal stem cells, NO nitric oxide, OA osteoarthritis, SMMSC synovial membrane, PGE2 prostaglandin E2, s-GAG sulfated glycosaminoglycan, SOX9 SRY-Box 9, RA rheumatoid arthritis, TNFα tumor necrosis factor alpha, TSG101 tumor susceptibility gene 101, WNT5A Wnt Family Member 5A