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Table 2 miRNAs with known associations to cardiovascular diseases

From: Applications of miRNAs in cardiac development, disease progression and regeneration

miRNAAnimal modelsTargetsLevel of expressionCardiovascular diseasesReferences
miR-1MiceHand2DownregulatedVentricular septal defect[51]
MiceMef2a, calmodulinDownregulatedCardiac hypertrophy[73, 74]
RatKcnj2UpregulatedAtrial fibrillation[75, 76]
DownregulatedVentricular arrhythmia[77]
HumanGJA1, SOX9DownregulatedVentricular septal defect[59]
miR-21HumanUpregulatedMyocardial infarction[65]
miR-23aMiceFoxo3aUpregulatedCardiac hypertrophy[67]
miR-29bHumanUpregulatedMyocardial infarction[65]
miR-126MiceSpred1, PI3KR2aDownregulatedDefective angiogenesis, leaky and fragile vessels[78]
miR-181HumanBMPR2UpregulatedVentricular septal defect[59]
miR-195HumanCHECK1UpregulatedVentricular septal defect[9]
miR-328Mice, ratCacna1c, Cacnb2UpregulatedAtrial fibrillation[79]
miR-421HumanSOX2UpregulatedTetralogy of fallot[80]