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Table 2 miRNAs with known associations to cardiovascular diseases

From: Applications of miRNAs in cardiac development, disease progression and regeneration

miRNA Animal models Targets Level of expression Cardiovascular diseases References
miR-1 Mice Hand2 Downregulated Ventricular septal defect [51]
Mice Mef2a, calmodulin Downregulated Cardiac hypertrophy [73, 74]
Rat Kcnj2 Upregulated Atrial fibrillation [75, 76]
Downregulated Ventricular arrhythmia [77]
Human GJA1, SOX9 Downregulated Ventricular septal defect [59]
miR-21 Human Upregulated Myocardial infarction [65]
miR-23a Mice Foxo3a Upregulated Cardiac hypertrophy [67]
miR-29b Human Upregulated Myocardial infarction [65]
miR-126 Mice Spred1, PI3KR2a Downregulated Defective angiogenesis, leaky and fragile vessels [78]
miR-181 Human BMPR2 Upregulated Ventricular septal defect [59]
miR-195 Human CHECK1 Upregulated Ventricular septal defect [9]
miR-328 Mice, rat Cacna1c, Cacnb2 Upregulated Atrial fibrillation [79]
miR-421 Human SOX2 Upregulated Tetralogy of fallot [80]