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Table 2 Secondary outcomes

From: Extracellular vesicles for acute kidney injury in preclinical rodent models: a meta-analysis

OutcomesNumber of studiesStd. mean difference (95%CI)Test for effect (P value)Heterogeneity, I2 (P value)
TUNEL10 [20, 24, 30, 31, 34, 36, 38,39,40, 45]− 6.25 (− 8.10, − 4.39)< 0.0187% (< 0.01)
Injury score6 [21, 23, 30, 31, 33, 37]− 3.90 (− 5.26, − 2.53)< 0.0154% (0.05)
IL-103 [20, 24, 38]2.10 (1.18, 3.02)< 0.0168% (0.04)
TNF-α3 [20, 35, 38]− 2.65 (− 4.98, − 0.32)0.0395% (< 0.01)
  1. Abbreviations: IL interleukin, TNF tumour necrosis factor