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Table 1 The summary of comparison of different stem cell-derived cell sheets in MI

From: Stem cell-derived cell sheet transplantation for heart tissue repair in myocardial infarction

Cell sources Advantages Disadvantages
Myoblast The most extensive research Limited potency of de novo cardiomyogenesis, arrhythmic risk
Mesenchymal stem cells Low immunogenicity, no arrhythmia risk, extensive clinical safety experience, and stronger paracrine ability Limited potency of de novo cardiomyogenesis
Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes Strongest de novo cardiomyogenesis ability, convenient for standardized operation protocol, and potential for genetic modification Trauma formation, limited vascularization, higher possibility of genetic and epigenetic mutations, and arrhythmic risk
Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes/vascular cells Convenient for standardized operation protocol, potential for genetic modification, increased survival rate of cell sheets, long-term beneficial outcome, and vascularization Existence of undifferentiated stem cells or other irrelevant cells and arrhythmic risk
Cell sheets with omentum flap or preconditioning Increased survival rate of cell sheets, long-term beneficial outcome, and vascularization Higher possibility of genetic and epigenetic mutations during preconditioning and side effects after application of omentum flap