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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in this meta-analysis

From: Efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells in animal models of lupus nephritis: a meta-analysis

Author, yearnType of animalMSC typeNumber of MSCRoute of deliveryEndpoints
Sun 2009 [10]12MRL/lpr miceBM-MSC0.1 × 106 cells per 10 g body weightIntravenousds-DNA, albumin, proteinuria, IgM, Foxp3, IL-6, IL-17
Gu 2010 [11]8MRL/lpr miceUC-MSC1 × 106; multi-treatment (at the 18th, 19th, and 20th weeks of age)IntravenousProteinuria, BUN, Scr, ds-DNA, MCP-1, Foxp3
Chang 2011 [12]8NZB/W F1 miceUC-MSC1 × 106IntravenousProteinuria, Scr, ds-DNA, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-4, IL-10, renal sclerosis score
Choi 2012 [13]26NZB/W F1 miceAD-MSC1.4 × 107IntravenousProteinuria, BUN, Scr, ds-DNA
Ji 2012 [14]10MRL/lpr miceBM-MSC0.2 × 106 cells per 10 g bodyIntravenousds-DNA, ANA, proteinuria
Ma 2013 [15]9MRL/lpr miceBM-MSC1 × 106IntravenousProteinuria, ds-DNA
Li 2013 [16]7129X1/svj miceBM-MSC1 × 106IntravenousProteinuria, BUN, renal sclerosis score, MCP-1
Liu 2014 [17]4MRL/lpr miceBM-MSC1 × 106IntravenousProteinuria, Scr
Che 2014 [18]10MRL/lpr miceBM-MSC0.1 × 106 cells per 10 g bodyIntravenousds-DNA, ANA, IL-10, TGF-β
Park 2015 [19]6Roquinsan/san miceAD-MSC1 × 106 for 5 weeksIntravenousIgM, ds-DNA, Th1, Th17, Treg
Choi 2015 [20]15MRL/lpr miceAD-MSC1 × 106IntravenousProteinuria, MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17
Jang 2016 [21]8NZB/W miceBM-MSC1 × 106 for 5 weeksIntravenousds-DNA, proteinuria
Choi 2016 [22]15NZB/W miceAD-MSC5 × 105 for 27 timesIntravenousBUN, ds-DNA
Yuan 2016 [23]16MRL/Lpr micehuman early embryonic MSC (hMSC)1 × 106Intravenousds-DNA, albumin, proteinuria, Scr, BUN, IL-17, IL-10, TGF-β
He 2016 [24]6B6.MRL/lpr miceAD-MSC1 × 106Intravenousds-DNA, proteinuria, IL-17, IL-6, INF-γ, TGF-β, TNF-α
Choi 2016 [25]20C3.MRL-Faslpr/J miceAD-MSC1 × 106Intravenousds-DNA, Scr, BUN, Treg, Th1
Zhang 2017 [26]5B6.MRL-Faslpr miceUC-MSC1 × 106Intravenousds-DNA, Th17, renal sclerosis score
Lee 2017 [27]5MRL-Faslpr miceBM-MSC4 × 106Intravenousds-DNA, proteinuria
Yang 2018 [28]6MRL/lpr miceBM-MSC2 × 106IntravenousRenal sclerosis score, proteinuria, ds-DNA
Tani 2017 [29]5NZB/W F1 miceBM-MSC1 × 106IntravenousProteinuria, ds-DNA, renal sclerosis score
Mai 2018 [30]4MRL/lpr miceUC-MSC1 × 106Intravenousds-DNA, proteinuria, IFN-γ, TGF-β, MCP-1, IgM, IL-2, IL-10
Ma 2018 [31]8MRL/lpr miceUC-MSC1 × 106IntravenousScr, proteinuria, IgM, C3,
Zhang 2019 [32]3B6.MRL-Faslpr miceUC-MSC1 × 106IntravenousRenal sclerosis score, proteinuria, ds-DNA
Lee JH 2018 [33]6MRL-Faslpr miceBM-MSC4 × 104Intravenousds-DNA, proteinuria
Huang 2018 [34]12MRL-Faslpr miceUC-MSC1 × 106IntravenousRenal sclerosis score, ds-DNA, proteinuria
Liu 2019 [35]10B6.MRL-Faslpr miceplacenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (pMSC)1 × 106Intravenousds-DNA, proteinuria, TNF-α
Tang 2019 [36]10B6.MRL-Faslpr miceUC-MSC2 × 105 per 10 g bodyIntravenousds-DNA, proteinuria, ANA, IgG, IgM, renal sclerosis score, IL-6, IL-17, IL-10, MCP-1