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Table 1 The underlying mechanisms of MSCs and their derivatives in treating APAP-induced liver injury in animal models

From: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells and their derivatives effectively promotes liver regeneration to attenuate acetaminophen-induced liver injury

MSC source 1MSC source 2DoseModelMechanismEffectRef.
MouseAdipose tissue1 × 106MouseSuppress cytochrome P450 activity; decrease the level of toxic nitrotyrosine; upregulate Nrf2 levelsEliminate the severity of liver injury; increase the survival rate of ALF mice[81]
HumanAdipose tissue2 × 105RatDecrease the levels of liver isoprostanes, 8-OHG and nitrite-nitrates; preserve GSH levels; decrease levels of TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-1β, ICAM-1 and phospho-JNKEliminate lobular necrosis and vacuolar degeneration[83]
HumanUmbilical cord1 × 105, 5 × 105, 1 × 106MouseMaintain levels of glutathione and superoxide dismutase; reduce levels of TNF-α and IL-6; increase HGF levelsIncrease the survival rate of ALF animals without reducing liver weight[84]
HumanAdipose tissue4 × 105MouseProlong the retention of MSCs; alleviate the inflammatory responseEliminate the severity of liver injury[85]
HumanUmbilical cord1 × 106MouseMaintain redox homeostasis; engraft into the injured liver tissue; reduce hepatocyte apoptosisReduce liver damage; enhance the survival rate of ALF mice[86]
HumanHLCs from bone marrow MSCs1 × 106MouseReside in the injured liver site; prevent apoptosis of hepatocytes; enhance tissue rearrangementEliminate the severity of liver injury[87]
MouseProteome from bone marrow-derived MSCs10 mg/mlMouseInhibit inflammation and hepatocyte necrosisProtect against liver damage and promote liver regeneration[88]