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Table 1 Therapies involving SCs and proinflammatory cytokines

From: Proinflammatory cytokines regulate epidermal stem cells in wound epithelialization

Targeted cells or factors Molecule or cell tested Route of application Subject Therapeutic effect Ref
Stem cells Hair follicle stem cells Direct application-hair skin graft Patients Less ulcer area, more granulation tissue formation and vascularization, and better innervation of the wound bed [50, 51]
Hair follicle stem cells Intradermal injection Rats Less inflammation, more granulation tissue formation, and faster vascularization and epithelialization [52]
Hair follicle stem cells Local injection Patients Increased hair density and hair follicle number [66, 67]
Mesenchymal stem cells Injection/spray Mice/patients Less inflammatory cells, proinflammatory cytokines, and scar formation as well as faster wound closure [55]
TNF-α Anti-TNF-α neutralizing antibody Topical application Mice/patients Less leukocyte recruitment, rebalance of M1/M2 macrophages, more matrix synthesis, and faster wound healing [58,59,60]
IL-1 Anti-IL-1β neutralizing antibody Topical application Cultured macrophages/mice Lower proinflammatory macrophage phenotype and proinflammatory cytokines expression. Faster re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation and more collagen deposition [61]
IL-1 receptor antagonist Topical application Mice Less leukocyte and macrophage recruitment and faster wound healing [62]
IL-17 Anti-IL-17A antibody Local injection Mice More pro-healing macrophages and better wound closure [63]